- Created by: paige-muir
- Created on: 31-01-20 07:19
Standardisation in spelling
- William Caxton developed the printing press which helped to establish the East Midlands dialectas the 'standard'.
- Printing press also marked the beginning of the standardisation of spelling. Many spellings of the same word would of existed in differeent dialects.
- 18th century spelling became fully standardised
- Johnson;s A' Dictionary of the English language; laid a firm foundation for the spelling
Standardisation in Grammar
Robert Lowth's 'A Short Introduction to English Grammar'
1800's these books became more widely used in education
However, not everyone had a chance to go to school, first education act not passed untill 1870
Categorises the attitudes people may have to language use:
- Language use as correct or incorrect
-Language use as pleasant or ugly
- Language examples as soically acceptable and unacceptable
- Language examples as morally acceptable or unacceptable
- Language examples as appropriate or inappropriate in their context
George Kingsley (1949)- Theory of least/ minimum e
the view if there is an easier way of pronouncing something then we will do it e.g. text speak.
- vowel reduction- this is where we remove one of the vowel sounds from a word.
- cluster reduction- this is where we reduce consonant clusters within a word such as 'think'- 'fink'
- Lenition- this is where we weaken consonant sounds within a word such as the glottal stop in 'bottle' and 'water'. Also appears at the end of words.
- Elision- Where we contract whole words or clip certain syllables e.g. fish 'n' chips.
Lynne Truss (2003)
- a lack of standard punctuation dempnstrates how an individual is not intellectually able.
John Humphrys (2006)
- Lack of standard forms is 'dragging language down'
Daniel Defoe (2007)
There is a need for 'language purism' a pure uncorrupted version of English
David Crystal (1999)
Crystal (descriptivist) argues that language chnage is neither progress nor decay, but that all languages change naturally over time.