Japan's knowlege and perception of earthquakes:
Earthquake proof buildings due to their wealth and knowledge, (counterweights on roof) thet sway in response to seismic waves.
1981 new building regulations enforced, these prooved successfull as buildings after the Kobe quake survived like the Kansai internaional airport and the Akushi bridge.
many buildings collapsed due to pancaking especially the old wooden structures of Kobe- 180000 buildings collapsed leaving 30% of pop. homeless.
500m of Hanshin Expressway collapsed
Kobe port largest in Japan had 140/170 quays destroyed due to liquefaction.
150 fires started due to gas leaks, this along with collapsed buildings caused $90billion total damage, 6400 killed and 35000 injured.
Excellent knowledge and perception- Disaster Day 1st September -Emergency earthquake kits widely available (preparation) -compulsary education in schools
this aspect of management helps to save lives
lack of ability of seismologists to predict earthquakes with £80million a year spent
experts beleived the next quake would not occur in Kobe-poor perception
lack of tectonic activity over last 50years (only 3% had earthquake insurance) people had reduced perception.
Kobe stage of development
Japan's stage of development(MEDC) was most significant in its speed of recovery
310000 made homeless cared for in temporary accomidation
within 4 months all utilities(gas,electricty, water) back on
1996 Hanshin Expressway completly rebuilt and Kobe's port 80% operational
Japan's wealth allowed it to cover the cost of $90billion in damage and invest in building earthquake proof structures to prepare for a future earthquake contrasting to LEDCs e.g Haiti