KEY STUDIES

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  • Created by: gcserh12
  • Created on: 19-05-14 10:37

Rahe (1970)

Aim: To investigate whether scores on the SRRS correlate with the subsequent onset of illness.

Method:  - 2,500 male American sailors

                - interviewed about number of life events experienced in last 6 months

                - SRRS score worked out

                - over next 6 months detailed records of health kept

Findings: - positive correlation of 0.1

                 - there is a relationship

Evaluation: - does not show cause and effect

                  - sample bias/ lacks population validity/ sailors possibly hardy

                          - Zur (2007) - meaning of the event is important e.g. reason for loss of spouse

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Kiecolt-Glaser (1984)

Aim:  To investigate whether stress causes a reductionin the effectiveness of the immune system
Method: - 75 first year medical students

              - natural experiment

              - filled in questionnaire looking at loneliness,life events, depression

              - blood test 1 month before exam and during the exam

              - level of T-cells measured

Findings: - significant decrease in number of T-cells during exam

                - particularly low for students who reported feeling lonely

Evaluation:  - lacks population validity

                    - questionaire=social desirability bias

                    + Research support = Riley (1981)

                    +/- natural experiment - high ecological validity but no control over extraneous variables

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Bouteyre (2007)

  • Studied first year psychology students at a French University
  • They completed the HSUP scale and a questionnaire measuring depression
  • There was a positive correlation
  • Daily Hassles associated with starting university could contribute to depression
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Gervais (2005)

  • Asked nurses to keep diaries for a month recording all hassles and uplifts
  • Asked to rate their performance over same period
  • Found daily hassles increase job strain and decreased performance
  • Uplifts had the opposite effect
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Johansson (1978)

Aim: To investigate whether work stressors (repetitiveness, machine-regulated pacce, high responsibility) increase stress related illness

Method: - High risk group = 14 finishers, low risk group = 10 cleaners

              - Swedish sawmill

              - levels of stress-related hormones in urine measured on work and rest days

              - records kept of illness and absenteeism

Findings: - high risk group secreted more stress hormones on work days than rest daysand hgiher levels than low risk group

                - high risk group showed significantly higher levels of absenteeism than the low risk group

Evaluation: - doesn't show cause and effect

                    - lacks population validity

                    + use of quantitive data - more accurate

                    - Marmot (1997) - no link between workload and stress but there was for control

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Friedman & Rosenman (1974)

Aim: To test their belief that Type A personalities were more prone to CHD than Type B

Method:  - longitudinal sstudy

              - Over 3,00 male volunteers from California between 39 and 59

              - personality type established through structured interview

Findings: - 81/2 years later, 70% of the men diagnosed with CHD were Type A

               - Type A had higher levels of adrenaline and cholestrol

               - Twice as many Type A had died compared to Type B

               - Type As more likely to smoke

Evaluation: - opportunity sample - not representative sample

                   - lack population validity

                   - other factors contributing to CHD e.g. smoking

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Asch (1956)

Aim: To explore how and why individuals are influenced by a larger group to behave in a certain way

Method: - 123 American male undergraduates

              - 1 participant in each group of confederates 

              - 2 cards - 1  standard line, 3 of differing lines

              - asked to match the 2 most similar lines

              - participant always answered last or next to last

Finding: - 37% of answers given by participants were incorrect

              - 75% conformed at least once

Evaluation: + support from Sherif (1935)

                    - child of its time - McCarthyism, Perrin and Spencer 1 person conformed

                    - Ethics: Deception and lack of informed consent

                    - lacks population and ecological validity

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Milgram (1963)

Aim:  To investigate what level of obedience would be shown when patricipants wwere told by an authority figure to give an electric shock to another person

Method: - 40 males aged 20 - 50 years of age obtained through newspaper ad

              - had shock generator - 30 switches (15 to 450V)

              - participant= teacher, confederate= learner

              - learner strapped to electric chair and asked questions by teacher

            - incorrect answer = shock

Findings: - All 400 participants obeyed up to 300V

                - 65% shocked up to 450V

Evaluation: - Baumrind (1964) - participants put under excessive emotional stress

                   - Ethics - deception and lack of informed consent

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Hofling (1966)

  • Asked 22 nurses to give 20mg of Astrogen over the phone
  • Nurses did not know doctor
  • This was double the recommended dose
  • Astrogen was actually glucose
  • 21 out of 22 nurses gave the full dose
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Moscovici (1969)

Aim: To support the view that a minority are most likely to influence a majority if they are consistent

Method: - 32 groups of six females (4 participants, 2 confederates)

              - first given eye test

              - shown 36 slides of different shades of blue

              - 3 groups: consistent confederates (green every time), inconsistent confederates ( answered green 24 times, control group (no green)

Findings:- control group= 0.25% answered green

              - inconsistent group = 1.25% answered green

              - consistent group = 8.42% answered green

Evaluation: - Ethics - deception and lack of informed consent

                    - sample bias/lacks population validity - only females used

                    - lacks ecological validity - lab experiment

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