Diet and Exercise
- A healthy diet contains the right amount of the right kind of foods. These include Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins and Minerals/Fibre.
- Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins are used to release energy to the muscles and rebuild cells.
- Minerals and Fibres are needed to keep the body healthy.
- If you eat an unbalanced diet you can become malnourished ( a condition when the body doesnt get a healthy diet).
- The more you exercise the more enrgy you use. Exercise increases the metabolic rate ( the rate at wich chemical reactions such as respiration in your body happens) which means the reactions happen quicker.
- Your metabolic rate can be affected by inhertied factors, the proportion of muscle to fat in your body and your gender.
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- To have a good health you need to get the energy balance correct
- if you consume the same amount of energy you use your mass will stay the same however if you consume more than you use your mass will increase (obesity)
- Long term obesity can lead to severe heart problems suchas Type 2 diabetes
- These problems can be reduced by eating less cabohydrates while increasing the amout of exercise
- However you can suffer problems if you consume to little energy such as findig it difficult to walk and defficency diseases.
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Inheritance, Exercise and Health
- Your matabolic rate can be affected by genes which you inherit from your parents
- There are 2 types of cholesterol good and bad cholesterol
- The 2 types are Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) and High - Density Lipoproteins (HDLs)
- The minority of people inherit bad cholesterol (HDLs) which can cause heart disease
- Foods that have alot of saturated fats can also increase blood cholesterol levels
- By exercising reguarly a person can increase their metabolic rate and lower the percentage of HDLs to LDLs.
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Pathogens and Disease
- Pathogens can cause infectious diseases
- Patogens are tiny microorganisms usually known as bacteria or viruses
- Bacteria and Viruse cells reprodce rapidly once entered the body. They make you feel ill by producing poisonis toxis
- Viruses are smaller than bacteria and tend to reproduce inside living cells
- before they had been discovered Semmelweiss a doctor realised that infection could be contagious.
- Semmelweiss told his staff at his hospital to wash their hands before treating patients. However, other doctors didnt take im seriously.
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- The skin prevents pathogens getting inside the body
- But some get in but most are trapped or killed by mucus and stomach acids
- White blood cells are a part of your immune system they can ingest pathogens, produce antibodies to destroy particuar pathogens or produce antitoxins to counteract the toxins the pathogens release
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Using Drugs to Treat Disease
- Antibiotics kill infective bacteria in the body.
- Penicillin is a type of antibiotic. It was dicovered by Alexandr Flemmig in 1928
- Viruses however are difficult to kill because they reproduce inside current cells in the body so any treatment ma kill the host cell
- Painkillers relieve the symtoms but do not kill the pathogen
- Your immune system will usually overcome viral pathogens over time
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Growing and Investigating Bacteria
- Pure cultures of non-pathogenic cacteria can be used for a lab test
- A culture of microorganisms can be used the effect which antibiotics have on bacteria
- Tests need uncontaminated cultures on microorganisms. Strict health and safety actions are used to protect yourself and others
- The contamination may come from your skin, the air, the soil or the water around you
- It the culture gets contaminated other bacteria may grow including pathogens
- Growing Cultures
- Give them a liquid or gel containing nutrients- a culture medium. it contains carbohydrate as an energy source, various minerals and sometimes other chemicals. A culture medium called agar jelly is used
- Provide warmth and oxygen
- Keep them incubated at 25 degrees celsius in school labs and 35 in idustrial labs
- Kill all bacteria on the equipment - pass metals loops through a flame; boil solutions and agar
- Prevent microorganisms from getting into the equipment.
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- some pathoges, particuarly viuses, can mutate resulting in a new form called a mututation.
- Very few are immune to these changed pathogens so disease can spread quickly.
- Diseases spread in a country are called a epidemic. howere those spread across lots of countrys get called a pandemic.
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How do we deal with Disease?
- Most people need to be vaccinated to protect society from very serious diseases.
- Diseases like measels can lead to long term problems like deafness and less often death.
- Some vaccines cause side affects which can be mild or serious. So there are advantages and disadvantages of having a vaccine.
- Overuse of antibiotics may lead to the bacteria creating new strains.
- Most doctors dont prescribe antibiotcs for mild infections such as minor soar throats.
- Scientists are always trying to find new ways of treatind diseases.
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- Dead or innactive forms of a pathogen are used to make vaccines. They can be injectaed into your body.
- The white blood cells react by producing antibodies.
- This makes the person immune. it prevents further infection from the active disease.
- The antibodies recognise the antigen from the pathogen.
- MMR vacines is one of severa vaccines to prevent meases, mumps and rubella.
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