Keeping Healthy

  1. Diet and Exercise
  2. Weight Problems
  3. Inheritance, Exercise and Healt
  4. Pathogens and Disease
  5. Defence Mechanisms
  6. Using Drugs to Treat Disease
  7. Growin and Investigating Bacteria
  8. Changing Pathogens
  9. Immunity
  10. How do we deal with Disease?
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Diet and Exercise

  • A healthy diet contains the right amount of the right kind of foods. These include Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins and Minerals/Fibre.
  • Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins are used to release energy to the muscles and rebuild cells.
  • Minerals and Fibres are needed to keep the body healthy.
  • If you eat an unbalanced diet you can become malnourished ( a condition when the body doesnt get a healthy diet).
  • The more you exercise the more enrgy you use. Exercise increases the metabolic rate ( the rate at wich chemical reactions such as respiration in your body happens) which means the reactions happen quicker.
  • Your metabolic rate can be affected by inhertied factors, the proportion of muscle to fat in your body and your gender.
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Weight Problems

  • To have a good health you need to get the energy balance correct
  • if you consume the same amount of energy you use your mass will stay the same however if you consume more than you use your mass will increase (obesity)
  • Long term obesity can lead to severe heart problems suchas Type 2 diabetes
  • These problems can be reduced by eating less cabohydrates while increasing the amout of exercise
  • However you can suffer problems if you consume to little energy such as  findig it difficult to walk and defficency diseases.
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Inheritance, Exercise and Health

  • Your matabolic rate can be affected by genes which you inherit from your parents
  • There are 2 types of cholesterol good and bad cholesterol
  • The 2 types are Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) and High - Density Lipoproteins (HDLs)
  • The minority of people inherit bad cholesterol (HDLs) which can cause heart disease
  • Foods that have alot of saturated fats can also increase blood cholesterol levels
  • By exercising reguarly a person can increase their metabolic rate and lower the percentage of HDLs to LDLs.
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Pathogens and Disease

  • Pathogens can cause infectious diseases
  • Patogens are tiny microorganisms usually known as bacteria or viruses
  • Bacteria and Viruse cells reprodce rapidly once entered the body. They make you feel ill by producing poisonis toxis
  • Viruses are smaller than bacteria and tend to reproduce inside living cells
  • before they had been discovered Semmelweiss a doctor realised that infection could be contagious.
  • Semmelweiss told his staff at his hospital to wash their hands before treating patients. However, other doctors didnt take im seriously.
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Defence Mechanisms

  • The skin prevents pathogens getting inside the body
  • But some get in but most are trapped or killed by mucus and stomach acids
  • White blood cells are a part of your immune system they  can ingest pathogens, produce antibodies to destroy particuar pathogens or produce antitoxins to counteract the toxins the pathogens release
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Using Drugs to Treat Disease

  • Antibiotics kill infective bacteria in the body.
  • Penicillin is a type of antibiotic. It was dicovered by Alexandr Flemmig in 1928
  • Viruses however are difficult to kill because they reproduce inside current cells in the body so any treatment ma kill the host cell
  • Painkillers relieve the symtoms but do not kill the pathogen
  • Your immune system will usually overcome viral pathogens over time
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Growing and Investigating Bacteria

  • Pure cultures of non-pathogenic cacteria can be used for a lab test
  • A culture of microorganisms can be used the effect which antibiotics have on bacteria
  • Tests need uncontaminated cultures on microorganisms. Strict health and safety actions are used to protect yourself and others
  • The contamination may come from your skin, the air, the soil or the water around you
  • It the culture gets contaminated other bacteria may grow including pathogens
  • Growing Cultures
  • Give them a liquid or gel containing nutrients- a culture medium. it contains carbohydrate as an energy source, various minerals and sometimes other chemicals. A culture medium called agar jelly is used
  • Provide warmth and oxygen
  • Keep them incubated at 25 degrees celsius in school labs and 35 in idustrial labs
  • Kill all bacteria on the equipment - pass metals loops through a flame; boil solutions and agar
  • Prevent microorganisms from getting into the equipment.
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Changing Pathogens

  • some pathoges, particuarly viuses, can mutate resulting in a new form called a mututation.
  • Very few are immune to these changed pathogens so disease can spread quickly.
  • Diseases spread in a country are called a epidemic. howere those spread across lots of countrys get called a pandemic.
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How do we deal with Disease?

  • Most people need to be vaccinated to protect society from very serious diseases.
  • Diseases like measels can lead to long term problems like deafness and less often death.
  • Some vaccines cause side affects which can be mild or serious. So there are advantages and disadvantages of having a vaccine.
  • Overuse of antibiotics may lead to the bacteria creating new strains.
  • Most doctors dont prescribe antibiotcs for mild infections such as minor soar throats.
  • Scientists are always trying to find new ways of treatind diseases.
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Immunity

  • Dead or innactive forms of a pathogen are used to make vaccines. They can be injectaed into your body.
  • The white blood cells react by producing antibodies.
  • This makes the person immune. it prevents further infection from the active disease.
  • The antibodies recognise the antigen from the pathogen.
  • MMR vacines is one of severa vaccines to prevent meases, mumps and rubella.
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