Competion, Predation, Adaptation
Plants needs: Leaves need space, roots need soil
Animals needs: Space, herbivores-plants, carnivores-animals
Predators=Animals that kill and eat prey. The cycle:
1. Prey population is larger, predator population will increase
2. predator population is large, prey will fall
3. prey population is small, predators will fall
Adaptation=features of behaviour. They develop in evolution to increase the chance of staying alive they are called biological solutions.
E.g Polar bears in cold and camels in hot.
Extreme Habitats & Pollution
E.g deep sea volcanic - vents = high pressure and temps, highly developed senses (not sight)
Antarctic - little heat lost, thick layer of insulating fat, may have waterproof feathers, huddle in large packed groups
High altitudes - Acclimatise = progressively icreasing altitude, produces extra red blood cells, to capture more oxygen.
Pollution=waste substances from human activies e.g fossil fuels
Air pollution: Hydrocarbons (combustion), CO2 (vehicles and greenhouse gas, sulphur dioxide (acid rain), carbon monoxide (vehicle exhaust & heavy industries)
Water pollution: Sewage, bacteria feed on it and use up oxygen living things die, nitrates washed into streams etc plants grow excessively, phosphates in fertillisers contributes to eutrophication.
Effects of human activity and environmental change
Human activity is effected by economic industrial conditions:
1. Land use
2. Use of raw materials e.g crude oil
3. Waste - landfill sites and pollution
Developing countries produce less air pollution because there are enforced guidelines and regulations for harmful emissions
Pollution changes habitats lkeaving organisms to move or stay and die. They could evolve to cope but changes are fast and regular.
Air pollution indicators - Lichens are sensitive to sulphur dioxide (air pollution) they are living indicatorsthey how the effect of the environmental change involving sulphur dioxide.
Conservation & Ozone layer and skin cancer
Keeps Eco-systems stable as environmental conditions change. These include : Biotic factors (living things) And abiotic factors (temp, humidity)
Leads to preventing extinction maintaining variation and preserving habitats.
Mangement techniques include: Re-forestation (planting forests on spare land), coppicing (cutting young trees donw above ground level(encourages growth)), Replacement planting.
Ozone layer is being destroyed by CFC's which has resulted in an increase of UV light - causing cases of skin cancer
Interdependence - relationship between organisms where one depends on another.
Terrestrial - On dry land i.e a land habitat