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What is ICT?

ICT stands for Information and Communication Technology

Definition:

ICT concerns any device or system that allows the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission and receipt of digital information.

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ICT Systems

This is when data is input into a system which is then processed and the output is information. Data is numbers and text which makes no sense to the use. Information is what makes sense to the user.

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Components of an ICT System

  • People - supply data and judgement
  • Data - raw material
  • Procedures - to be done and when
  • Software - programs
  • Hardware - physical components, input & storage devices
  • Information - results from processing data

Pe DISH Pro

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Data

Number of forms:

- Numbers

- Words

- Still images

- Moving images

- Sounds

Coding data:

Data is often coded during collection or when input, because:

- less effort to type in

- more data can appear on screen

- takes up less storage space

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Data Capture

Data capture inputs:

- mouse

- barcode scanner

Direct Data Capture:

Collection of data for a particular purpose. E.g. Barcode scanned at supermarket

Indirect Data Capture:

Using data capture as a by-product of the data captured. For example, using data from barcode scanners to check stock levels

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Key Terms

Encoding - All data has to be encoded into binary format to be processed by the computer

Coding - When data is collected for inputting into a computer and it sometimes needs to be coded to allow more effective processing to produce more useful information.

Direct data - For a purpose

Indirect data - a by-product of direct data capture

GIGO - Garbage In Garbage Out

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End User requirements

  • Experience
  • Physical Characteristics
    • (disabilities/ impairments)
  • Environment of Use
  • Task to be undertaken
  • Age
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Human Computer Interface (HCI)

Most systems involve human involve human interaction at some point

Designing a HCI:

  • Easy to use
  • Consistent
  • Graphics and icons should be included
  • Sound could be a feature
  • Appropriate to users
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Five rules for Good Interface Design

1) All system interfaces should be consistent and should act, look and feel the same throughout

2) Put features such as headings, error messages and requests for user responses in a consistent location

3) Make good use of colour and contrast

4) Keep the level of complexity appropriate to the experience of the user

5) Start at the top left of the page and work down

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User Support

  • Telephone Help Desks
  • E-mail Support
  • User Guides
  • Online Support
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Help Desk Qualities

Skills

  •  
    • Talk on the phone

    • Have a clear voice

    • Understanding of Computers

    • Understand different people

    • Not raise voice at customers

Personal Qualities

  • Friendly
  • Approachable
  • Stay calm
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Internet

  • The WWW is a collection of web pages and information in multimedia form
  • The Internet is a Global connection of linked networks and hosts the World Wide Web
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Elements of an ICT Network

  • Communication Devices
    • Network Interface Card
    • Hub
    • Switch
    • Router
  • Networking Software
    • Network Operating Systems
    • Network Management Software
  • Standards and Procedures
    • Enable devices to communicate with eachother
    • Ensures security on the system
    • Security of network may be compromised
  • Data Transfer Media
    • Copper Cable
    • Fibre Optic Cables
    • Twisted Pair
    • Coavial
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Network Topologies

  • Bus
    • Small amount of cable
    • Has a backbone cable
    • Only suited for small networks
  • Ring
    • Circular configuration
    • Easy to add extra devices
    • Equal status of device
  • Mesh
    • Fault tolerant
    • Easy to locate faults
    • High cost
  • Star
    • Central control hub
    • Fault tolerant
    • Higher costs
    • Dependent on Central hub
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Intranets and Extranets

Intranet:

  • Private networks
  • Uses same technology as Internet
  • Only used by employees

Extranet:

  • Not restricted to just employees
  • Suppliers, customers and other trading partners can access them
  • Can use public or private communications
  • Uses same technology as internet
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Networks

Advantages:

  • Able to share files/ hardware resources/ software
  • Lower software costs
  • Improved security
  • Easier to backup files
  • Improved communications
  • Central maintainance and support

Disadvantages:

  • Cost
  • Technical knowledge needed
  • Lack of access when file servers fail
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Data Protection Act

  • Data Subject
    • Person who info is about
    • Has rights to see and change data under the Act
  • Personal Data
    • Data about an identifiable person
    • Examples:
      • Medical History
      • Credit History
      • Religious beliefs
  • Data Controller
    • Reponsible for compliance with act
    • Person in organisation who controls the way personal data is processed
  • Information Commissioner
    • Enforces act
    • Promotes good practice
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Computer Misuse Act Offences

Offences:

  • Planting or Transferring viruses
  • Carrying out unauthorised work
  • Copying programs illegally
  • Hacking
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Computer Misuse Act

  • Section 1
    • Accessing programs/ files without permission
    • 6 months in prison + £5,000 fine
    • Not changing data
  • Section 2
    • More serious criminal intent
    • Persistent offenders of section 1
    • 5 years in prison
    • Fraud
  • Section 3
    • Deliberately altering data/ programs
    • Purposely spreading viruses
    • 5 years in prison
    • Changing data/ program codes
    • Damaging networks
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Threats

  • Internal
    • Threats within the organisation
    • User mistakes/ malpractice
    • Theft
    • Hacking by employee
    • Server and Hardware Failure
  • External
    • Threats outside the organisation
    • Natural disasters
    • Viruses
    • Arson
    • Hacking
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Protecting ICT systems

  • Hardware Measures
    • Fireproof safes to hold external hard drives
    • Access restrictions to computer
    • Access restrictions to computer rooms
    • Firewalls
  • Software measures
    • User IDs and passwords
    • Access restrictions
    • Firewalls
    • Encryption
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Privacy

Systems that erode privacy

  • Surveillance Cameras
  • Loyalty cards/ credit card agencies
  • Monitoring of employees/ people

Who collects personal information

  • Doctors
  • Stores
  • Government service

Reducing errors

  • Medical details
  • Credit history
  • Payment details

Keep your life private

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Copyright, Designs and Patents Act

Problems with illegally copying software

  • Viruses
  • No software support
  • Illegal

Crime to copy or steal software

  • Can copy with owner's permission
  • Can only run the number of versions as allowed by licence

Punishments

  • Unlimited fines
  • Up to 10 years in prison
  • Sued for damages
  • Confiscation of computers
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Need for backup

Malpractice and Crime

  • User errors
  • Terrorist Attacks
  • Viruses
    • Install anti-virus software
    • Copies itself automatically
    • Viruses are being created all the time
  • Hacking
  • Theft
  • Torjans
  • Worms

Hardware failure

Software bugs

Natural Disasters

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Backup Strategy - Types

Full

  • Making a copy of all files on the system

Incremental

  • Backs up files which have changed since the last full backup

Differential

  • Cumulative backup of changes since the last full backup
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Backup Strategy - When and How

When

  • After a session at work
  • Daily
  • Weekly
  • Continuously

How

  • Magnetic media
  • Optical media
  • Flash/ pen drive
  • Transfer over the internet
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Backup Recovery and Procedures

  • Alternative accommodation
  • Availability of staff at short notice
  • Availability of hardware
  • Training for staff on how to recover data
  • Availability of alternative networks and communication facilities
  • RAID systems
    • Redundant Array of Inexpensive disks
    • Series of magnetic disks
  • Clustering
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Processing

Batch

  • Everything processed and collected inone single operation
  • Used for large volumes of transactions

Transaction

  • Processing done in smaller steps
  • One step has to finish before the next can start

Interactive

  • User has a conversation with the system
  • User inputs command - system passes or fails it after a while

Real time

  • System replies as data arrives
  • Therefore, you get information back instantly
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Factors that affect the use of ICT systems

  • Hardware availability
  • Volume of data
    • Different sized systems will need different amounts of memory
    • The more memory needed the more expensive the hardware
  • Response time
    • Some systems need to react instantly
  • Nature of the system
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Cultural and Economic factors affecting the use of

Cultural

  • Lack of skills
  • No English
  • Political problems
  • China stop access to sites like Facebook

Economic

  • Labour costs
  • Fuel costs
  • Access to Internet
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Social Factors affecting the use of ICT

  • Teleworking
  • Shopping online 
  • Job loss
  • Addictions
  • Less personal
  • Privacy and Security issues
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Legal factors affecting the use of ICT

  • Track people
  • Police
  • Voice - car bluetooth
  • Data Protection Act
  • Copyright laws
  • Computer Misuse Act
  • Automatic Number Plate Recognition Systems
  • CCTV cameras
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Environmental and Ethical Factors affecting the us

Environmental

  • Use on the move 
  • Appropriate user interfaces
  • Call centres
  • Airport scanners
  • Google street view

Ethical

  • Privacy - Ethical
  • Copying
  • Accuracy
  • Preventing unauthorised access
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