Topic 1 -9

  • Created by: Kathryn
  • Created on: 12-04-12 15:39

Topic 1- An ICT System and its components

What is ICT?

 Information Communication Tenchnology

It covers hardware:

Computers, Scanners, Digital cameras

And software:

Systems software,Word-processors,Databases, Spreadsheets



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Topic 1- An ICT System and its components

Components                                        Communications

People                                                 Digital TV

Data                                                    Digital Radio

Information                                          Internet

Procedures                                          E-mail

Hardware                                             Mobile Phones

Software                                              Wi-Fi

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Topic 2- Data and Information

What is data?

  • Numbers
  • Words
  • Images 
  • Sounds

Data is meaningless

Ways in which data can arise:

  • Survery
  • Transaction
  • Results if an experiment
  • Automatic measurement of environmental quantaties
  • Output of a management information system
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Topic 2- Data and Information

Encoding images:

  • GIF,JPEG,TIFF,WMF, Bitmapped,Vector

Encoding Sound:

  • WAV
  • MIDI
  • MP3
  • Shockwave Audio  


  • Making a decision, sorting, organising, grouping, performing calculations
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Topic 2- Data and Information

Quality of information:

  • Accuracy
  • Understanding
  • Relevence
  • Up to date

Why keep information up to date?

  • Data protection act 1998
  • So people can contact the right person 
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Topic 3- People and ICT systems

User requirements depend on:

  • Experience
  • Age
  • Physical characteristics
  • Environment
  • Task

ICT Professionals:

  • Buisness/systems analyst/ project manager
  • Software developer/programmer
  • Web Designer
  • Technician/Engineer/Network Administrator
  • Help-desk operator
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Topic 3- People and ICT systems

Advantages of working in an ICT team

  • Can produce better work
  • Members are able to help and motivate each other
  • Can conmplete the project in a reasonable time frame 
  • Able to bounce ideas off each other
  • Tasks assigned to best person to carry them out

Types of user interface:Command-driven interface

  • Uses commands,Need to remember commands,Need to construct commands properly

Natural language interface                                          Graphical user interface

  • Spoken or written,Uses ordinary language                                                                                                                           Windows,Icons,Menus,Pointers
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Topic 4- Transfer of data in ICT systems

Elements of an ICT network Communication devices:

  • Router                                           Networking software:
  • Switch                                                    Network operating                                                                                        Network managemnt software
  • Hub
  • Network interface card

Standards and procedures

  • Enables devices to communicate with each other
  • Ensures the security of the system

Data transfer media

  • Metal wires
  • Fibre optic cable
  • Wireless
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Topic 4- Transfer of data in ICT systems

Network Topologies

Ring                                                     Bus

  • Only one path for data                 Small amount of cable
  • Faults hard to locate                    Easy to add extra devices
  • Equal status of devices                Has a backbone cable
  • Easy to add extra devices            Only suited for small networks
  • Circular configuration

Mesh                                                 Star

  • Fault tolerant                          Central connection hub
  • Easy to locate faults               Fault tolerant
  • Higher costs                           Easy to add extra computers
  • Harder to maintain                 Higher cost because more cable needed

                                                       Dependant on central hub , switch, router or                                                              computer

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Topic 4- Transfer of data in ICT systems



  • Private network
  • uses same technology as internet
  • only used by employees


  • Not restricted to just employees
  • Suppliers,customers and other trading partners can access it
  • Can use public or private communication
  • Uses same technology as internet
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Topic 4- Transfer of data in ICT systems

Networks Advantages:

  • Share files
  • Share hardware rescources
  • Share sofwtare
  • Lower software costs
  • Improved security
  • Easier to backup files
  • Easier to implement acceptable use policies
  • Improved communications
  • Central maintanence and support


  • Cost
  • Technical knowledge needed
  • Lack of acces when file sever fails
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system


  • Keeping your life private  Systems that erode privacy:
  • Surveilance cameras
  • Loyalty cards
  • Monitoring by employers
  • Internet monitoring
  • Mobile phone monitoring

Who collects personal information?

  • Doctors etc
  • Stores
  • Market research organisations
  • Goverment depts
  • Schools, colleges etc
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Reducing errors:

  • Credit history
  • Purchases made
  • Medical details
  • Video 
  • Payment details


At work:

  • Downloads made
  • Websites visited
  • E-mails sent
  • Time spent on internet
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

When you shop:

  • Loyalty cards
  • Surveilance cameras

At home:ISP records

  • Webpages vistied
  • Downloads
  • E-mail details


  • Text files used to collect data,Collects data about use of a website


  • Web browsing history,Keystrokes made- identity theft, user-IDs copied, passwords found
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Problems with on-line banking Identity theft:

  • Personal details found,Credit card/banking details found,Used to commit fraud


  • Fake e-mails sent,Ask to reveal banking/card details,Ask for user-ID and password,Used to commit fraud


  • Programs added to computers,Without user knowledge,Used to transmit personal details back


  • Never reveal personal details in an e-mail
  • Shred all credit card slip/statements, etc.
  • Never reveal banking details unless encrypted
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Threats Internal:

  • Within organisation
  • User mistakes
  • Theft
  • Hacking by employee
  • Negligence


  • Outside organisation
  • Hacking 
  • Arson


  • Illegal
  • Punishable
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system


  • Improper, careless use or misconduct
  • Wasting time surfing internet
  • No logging off
  • Divulging passwords

Protecting ICT systems:

Hardware measures:

  • Fireproof safes
  • Access restrictions to computers
  • Access restrictions to computer rooms
  • Firewalls
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Software measures

  • User IDs and passwords
  • Access restrictions ( read-only, read-write, append, no access)
  • Firewalls
  • Encryption

Procedures for protecting ICT systems: Separation of duties

  • No one person being responsible for a process
  • Helps prevent fraud


  • Protects business data from falling into competitors hands
  • Protects personal data
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system


  • Prevents user mistakes
  • Makes users aware of responsibilities

Acceptable use policy

  • Document outlining what employees can and can't do
  • Enforced by discliplinary action
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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Data protection act 1998 Data subject:

  • Person who info is about and has rights under act

Personal data:

  • Data about an identifiable person
  • Who is alive
  • Is specific to that person

Personal data- medical history, credit history, qualifications, religious beliefs, criminal records

Data controller:

  • Responsible for compliance with act
  • Person in organisation who controls way personal data is processed

Information commissioner: Enforces act and Promotes good practice

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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Computer misuse act 1990

Offences under the act:

  • Planting or transferring viruses
  • Carrying out unauthorised work
  • Copying programs illegally
  • Hacking
  • Using an ICT system to commit fraud

Need to prove intent

Need to prove act was not accidental

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Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Copyright,designs and patents act 1998

Problems with illegally copying software:

Viruses, no software support, do not qualify for upgrades and illegal

Crime to copy or steal software:

  • Can copy with owners permission
  • Can only run the number of versions as allowed by license


  • Unlimited fines
  • Up to 10 years imprisonment
  • Sued for damages
  • Confiscation of computers
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Topic 6- Backup and recovery

The need for backup:

Malpractice and crime: User error, terrorist attack, viruses, hacking, theft, deliberate of damage

  • Hardware failure
  • Software bugs
  • Power cuts
  • Natural disasters
  • Fire

Back up stratergy


  • Full?
  • Incremental?
  • Differential?
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Topic 6- Backup and recovery


  • After a session of work?
  • Hourly?
  • Daily?
  • Continuously?


  • Magnetic media?
  • Optical media?
  • Flash/pen drive?
  • Transfer using internet?

Recovery of backups Alternative accommodation, availability of staff, availability of hardware, training for staff on how to recover data, availability of alternative communication facilities

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Topic 7- What ICT can provide

  • Fast repetitive processing
  • Vast storage capacity
  • Facility to search for and combine data
  • Improved presentation of information
  • Improved accessibility to information and services
  • Improved security of data and processes

Limitations of ICT systems:

  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Communications
  • Inappropriate system design
  • Operational procedures
  • Current legislation
  • Poor data control mechanisms
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Topic 7- What ICT can provide

Types of processing:


  • Inputs are collected over a period
  • Input documents batched together
  • Processed in one go


  • Slight delay in processing
  • Constant dialogue between computer and user


  • Input data processed immediately
  • No delay
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Topic 8- Factors affecting the use of ICT


  • Lack of skills
  • No English
  • Political problems


  • Labour costs
  • Fuel costs
  • Access to internet


  • Job loss
  • Addictions
  • Less personal
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Topic 8- Factors affecting the use of ICT


  • Use on the move
  • Appropriate user interface


  • Data protection laws
  • Copyright laws
  • Other laws


  • Privacy
  • Copying
  • Accuracy
  • Preventing unauthorised access 
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Topic 9- The consequences of the use of ICT

Benefits to individuals

  • Opportunities to telework
  • You can shop from home
  • Access to media anywhere/any place
  • Access to on-line banking
  • Access to huge amounts of information using the internet
  • Creates new interesting jobs
  • Easy to exchange ideas
  • More leisure time
  • Savings made when shopping on the internet

Problems to individuals:

  • Health problems
  • Information overload
  • Worries about children accessing the internet
  • Insecurity at work
  • Having to keep up with new developments
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Topic 9- The consequences of the use of ICT

Problems to society:

  • Copying
  • Access to ***********
  • Lack of equality
  • Lack of privacy
  • Cyber bullying
  • Misinformation
  • Spreading rumours
  • De-skills or eliminates certain jobs
  • Misuse
  • Globalisation
  • Widens gap between rich and poor countries 
  • Bogus sites
  • Using digital editing to destroy images
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Topic 9- The consequences of the use of ICT

Benefits to society:

  • Shorter working week
  • Higher standard of living
  • Makes life safer
  • Greater productivity and less wastage
  • Greater democracy
  • Helps disabled people to be more independant
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fairly good resource thnaks

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