INFO 2

Topic 1 -9

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Kathryn
  • Created on: 12-04-12 15:39

Topic 1- An ICT System and its components

What is ICT?

 Information Communication Tenchnology

It covers hardware:

Computers, Scanners, Digital cameras

And software:

Systems software,Word-processors,Databases, Spreadsheets

Remember:

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT!!!!

1 of 31

Topic 1- An ICT System and its components

Components                                        Communications

People                                                 Digital TV

Data                                                    Digital Radio

Information                                          Internet

Procedures                                          E-mail

Hardware                                             Mobile Phones

Software                                              Wi-Fi

2 of 31

Topic 2- Data and Information

What is data?

  • Numbers
  • Words
  • Images 
  • Sounds

Data is meaningless

Ways in which data can arise:

  • Survery
  • Transaction
  • Results if an experiment
  • Automatic measurement of environmental quantaties
  • Output of a management information system
3 of 31

Topic 2- Data and Information

Encoding images:

  • GIF,JPEG,TIFF,WMF, Bitmapped,Vector

Encoding Sound:

  • WAV
  • MIDI
  • MP3
  • Shockwave Audio  

Processing:

  • Making a decision, sorting, organising, grouping, performing calculations
4 of 31

Topic 2- Data and Information

Quality of information:

  • Accuracy
  • Understanding
  • Relevence
  • Up to date

Why keep information up to date?

  • Data protection act 1998
  • So people can contact the right person 
5 of 31

Topic 3- People and ICT systems

User requirements depend on:

  • Experience
  • Age
  • Physical characteristics
  • Environment
  • Task

ICT Professionals:

  • Buisness/systems analyst/ project manager
  • Software developer/programmer
  • Web Designer
  • Technician/Engineer/Network Administrator
  • Help-desk operator
6 of 31

Topic 3- People and ICT systems

Advantages of working in an ICT team

  • Can produce better work
  • Members are able to help and motivate each other
  • Can conmplete the project in a reasonable time frame 
  • Able to bounce ideas off each other
  • Tasks assigned to best person to carry them out

Types of user interface:Command-driven interface

  • Uses commands,Need to remember commands,Need to construct commands properly

Natural language interface                                          Graphical user interface

  • Spoken or written,Uses ordinary language                                                                                                                           Windows,Icons,Menus,Pointers
7 of 31

Topic 4- Transfer of data in ICT systems

Elements of an ICT network Communication devices:

  • Router                                           Networking software:
  • Switch                                                    Network operating                                                                                        Network managemnt software
  • Hub
  • Network interface card

Standards and procedures

  • Enables devices to communicate with each other
  • Ensures the security of the system

Data transfer media

  • Metal wires
  • Fibre optic cable
  • Wireless
8 of 31

Topic 4- Transfer of data in ICT systems

Network Topologies

Ring                                                     Bus

  • Only one path for data                 Small amount of cable
  • Faults hard to locate                    Easy to add extra devices
  • Equal status of devices                Has a backbone cable
  • Easy to add extra devices            Only suited for small networks
  • Circular configuration

Mesh                                                 Star

  • Fault tolerant                          Central connection hub
  • Easy to locate faults               Fault tolerant
  • Higher costs                           Easy to add extra computers
  • Harder to maintain                 Higher cost because more cable needed

                                                       Dependant on central hub , switch, router or                                                              computer

9 of 31

Topic 4- Transfer of data in ICT systems

Networks

Intranets:

  • Private network
  • uses same technology as internet
  • only used by employees

Extranets:

  • Not restricted to just employees
  • Suppliers,customers and other trading partners can access it
  • Can use public or private communication
  • Uses same technology as internet
10 of 31

Topic 4- Transfer of data in ICT systems

Networks Advantages:

  • Share files
  • Share hardware rescources
  • Share sofwtare
  • Lower software costs
  • Improved security
  • Easier to backup files
  • Easier to implement acceptable use policies
  • Improved communications
  • Central maintanence and support

Disadvantages:

  • Cost
  • Technical knowledge needed
  • Lack of acces when file sever fails
11 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Privacy

  • Keeping your life private  Systems that erode privacy:
  • Surveilance cameras
  • Loyalty cards
  • Monitoring by employers
  • Internet monitoring
  • Mobile phone monitoring

Who collects personal information?

  • Doctors etc
  • Stores
  • Market research organisations
  • Goverment depts
  • Schools, colleges etc
12 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Reducing errors:

  • Credit history
  • Purchases made
  • Medical details
  • Video 
  • Payment details

Monitoring

At work:

  • Downloads made
  • Websites visited
  • E-mails sent
  • Time spent on internet
13 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

When you shop:

  • Loyalty cards
  • Surveilance cameras

At home:ISP records

  • Webpages vistied
  • Downloads
  • E-mail details

Cookies:

  • Text files used to collect data,Collects data about use of a website

Spyware:

  • Web browsing history,Keystrokes made- identity theft, user-IDs copied, passwords found
14 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Problems with on-line banking Identity theft:

  • Personal details found,Credit card/banking details found,Used to commit fraud

Phishing:

  • Fake e-mails sent,Ask to reveal banking/card details,Ask for user-ID and password,Used to commit fraud

Trojans:

  • Programs added to computers,Without user knowledge,Used to transmit personal details back

Protect:

  • Never reveal personal details in an e-mail
  • Shred all credit card slip/statements, etc.
  • Never reveal banking details unless encrypted
15 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Threats Internal:

  • Within organisation
  • User mistakes
  • Theft
  • Hacking by employee
  • Negligence

External:

  • Outside organisation
  • Hacking 
  • Arson

Crime:

  • Illegal
  • Punishable
16 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Malpractice:

  • Improper, careless use or misconduct
  • Wasting time surfing internet
  • No logging off
  • Divulging passwords

Protecting ICT systems:

Hardware measures:

  • Fireproof safes
  • Access restrictions to computers
  • Access restrictions to computer rooms
  • Firewalls
17 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Software measures

  • User IDs and passwords
  • Access restrictions ( read-only, read-write, append, no access)
  • Firewalls
  • Encryption

Procedures for protecting ICT systems: Separation of duties

  • No one person being responsible for a process
  • Helps prevent fraud

Non-disclosure

  • Protects business data from falling into competitors hands
  • Protects personal data
18 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Training

  • Prevents user mistakes
  • Makes users aware of responsibilities

Acceptable use policy

  • Document outlining what employees can and can't do
  • Enforced by discliplinary action
19 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Data protection act 1998 Data subject:

  • Person who info is about and has rights under act

Personal data:

  • Data about an identifiable person
  • Who is alive
  • Is specific to that person

Personal data- medical history, credit history, qualifications, religious beliefs, criminal records

Data controller:

  • Responsible for compliance with act
  • Person in organisation who controls way personal data is processed

Information commissioner: Enforces act and Promotes good practice

20 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Computer misuse act 1990

Offences under the act:

  • Planting or transferring viruses
  • Carrying out unauthorised work
  • Copying programs illegally
  • Hacking
  • Using an ICT system to commit fraud

Need to prove intent

Need to prove act was not accidental

21 of 31

Topic 5- Safety and security of data in ICT system

Copyright,designs and patents act 1998

Problems with illegally copying software:

Viruses, no software support, do not qualify for upgrades and illegal

Crime to copy or steal software:

  • Can copy with owners permission
  • Can only run the number of versions as allowed by license

Punishments:

  • Unlimited fines
  • Up to 10 years imprisonment
  • Sued for damages
  • Confiscation of computers
22 of 31

Topic 6- Backup and recovery

The need for backup:

Malpractice and crime: User error, terrorist attack, viruses, hacking, theft, deliberate of damage

  • Hardware failure
  • Software bugs
  • Power cuts
  • Natural disasters
  • Fire

Back up stratergy

What?

  • Full?
  • Incremental?
  • Differential?
23 of 31

Topic 6- Backup and recovery

When?

  • After a session of work?
  • Hourly?
  • Daily?
  • Continuously?

How?

  • Magnetic media?
  • Optical media?
  • Flash/pen drive?
  • Transfer using internet?

Recovery of backups Alternative accommodation, availability of staff, availability of hardware, training for staff on how to recover data, availability of alternative communication facilities

24 of 31

Topic 7- What ICT can provide

  • Fast repetitive processing
  • Vast storage capacity
  • Facility to search for and combine data
  • Improved presentation of information
  • Improved accessibility to information and services
  • Improved security of data and processes

Limitations of ICT systems:

  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Communications
  • Inappropriate system design
  • Operational procedures
  • Current legislation
  • Poor data control mechanisms
25 of 31

Topic 7- What ICT can provide

Types of processing:

Batch:

  • Inputs are collected over a period
  • Input documents batched together
  • Processed in one go

Transaction:

  • Slight delay in processing
  • Constant dialogue between computer and user

Real-time

  • Input data processed immediately
  • No delay
26 of 31

Topic 8- Factors affecting the use of ICT

Cultural

  • Lack of skills
  • No English
  • Political problems

Economic

  • Labour costs
  • Fuel costs
  • Access to internet

Social

  • Job loss
  • Addictions
  • Less personal
27 of 31

Topic 8- Factors affecting the use of ICT

Environmental:

  • Use on the move
  • Appropriate user interface

Legal

  • Data protection laws
  • Copyright laws
  • Other laws

Ethical:

  • Privacy
  • Copying
  • Accuracy
  • Preventing unauthorised access 
28 of 31

Topic 9- The consequences of the use of ICT

Benefits to individuals

  • Opportunities to telework
  • You can shop from home
  • Access to media anywhere/any place
  • Access to on-line banking
  • Access to huge amounts of information using the internet
  • Creates new interesting jobs
  • Easy to exchange ideas
  • More leisure time
  • Savings made when shopping on the internet

Problems to individuals:

  • Health problems
  • Information overload
  • Worries about children accessing the internet
  • Insecurity at work
  • Having to keep up with new developments
29 of 31

Topic 9- The consequences of the use of ICT

Problems to society:

  • Copying
  • Access to ***********
  • Lack of equality
  • Lack of privacy
  • Cyber bullying
  • Misinformation
  • Spreading rumours
  • De-skills or eliminates certain jobs
  • Misuse
  • Globalisation
  • Widens gap between rich and poor countries 
  • Bogus sites
  • Using digital editing to destroy images
30 of 31

Topic 9- The consequences of the use of ICT

Benefits to society:

  • Shorter working week
  • Higher standard of living
  • Makes life safer
  • Greater productivity and less wastage
  • Greater democracy
  • Helps disabled people to be more independant
31 of 31

Comments

James

fairly good resource thnaks

Similar ICT resources:

See all ICT resources »See all resources »