Human Geography

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How Does Population Grow?

Exponential Growth - A pattern where the growth rate constanly increases - often shown as a j-curve graph.

Zero Gowth - A population in balance. Birth rate is qual to death rate, so there is no growth or decrease.

Natural Decrease - The death rate exceeds the birth rate.

Birth Rate (BR) - The number of babies born per 1,000 people per year.

Death Rate (DR) - The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.

Natural Change - The difference between birth rate and death rate, expressed as a percentage.

Natural Increase (NI) - The birth rate exceeds the death rate.

Life Expectancy - The number of years a person is expected to live, usually taken from birth.

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What Is The Demographic Transition Model?

Demography is the study of population. Transition simply means change. 

The model explains the birth and death rate patterns across the world and through time.

It includes the main period of a countrys development and shows the links between demographic and economic changes.

The diagram is divided into five stages, showing change from high birth and death rate in Stage 1 to much lower ones in Stage 4 and 5.

Orginally, the model was designed to explain population change.

Now used to explain events in all countries.

This allows us to compare different pattterns of demographic and economc development.

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Characteristics Of Each Stage.

Stage 1 -

  • High fluctuating stage in societies where there is little medicine.
  • Low life expectancy and no means of birth control.

Stage 2 -

  • The decrease in birth rate from Stage 1.
  • Improvements in medicine and hygiene cure some diseases and prevent others.
  • Life expectancy increases.
  • Gap betweeen BR and DR results in population growth.
  • Children are needed to work the land.

Stage 3 -

  • Death rate continues to fall, but more slowly.
  • Start of Stage 3, decrease in birth rate.
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Characteristics Of Each Stage.

Stage 4 -

  • Birth rates and death rates are both low.
  • Lines are close to eath other.
  • Birth rate varies according to the economic situation.
  • This is called the low fluctuating stage.

Stage 5 -

  • Many Eastern and a few Western Europian countries are at Stage 5.
  • Death rate rises because of more elderly people.

Example Countries - Stage 1 - Traditional rainforest tribes.

Stage 2 - Afghanistan.

Stage 3 - Brazil

Stage 4 - USA

Stage 5 - Germany

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Major Factors Affecting Population Growth.

Agricultural Change - Changes occur early in a countrys development. Population may decrease as a country develops. E.g. Tractors do the work for many people.

Urbanisation (Rural to urban migration) - People move to cities for jobs and education + oppotunities. Childrens labour is therefore of less value in cities than in rural areas.

Education - Children are expensive if at school rather than at work. Parents are able to afford education for only small number of children.

Emancipation And Status Of Women - Population growth slows as more women have careers in the work force.

Rural to urban migration - Moving home from a rural area to settle in a city.

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How Do We Use Population Pyramids?

Population Pyramids -

  • Type of bar graph used to show the age and gender structure of a country, city, or other area.
  • The horizontal axis is dived into either numbers or percentages of the population.
  • The central vertical axis shows age categories. E.g. Every 10 years, Every 5 years, Every single year.
  • Lower part of pyramid is know as the base.
  • The base shows the younger section of the population.
  • The upper part is known as the apex.
  • The apex shows the elderly.

Interpreting population pyramids tells us a great deal about a population, such as birth rates, to a lesser extent death rates, life expectancy and the level of economic development.

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How Do We Use Population Pyramids? Key Terms.

Age Structure - The proportions of each age group in a population. This links closely to the stage a country has reached in the demographic transition model.

Gender Structure - The balance between males and females in a popluation. Small differences can tell us a great deal about a country or city.

Infant Mortality - The number of babies that die under a year of age, per 1,000 live births.

Child Mortality - The number of children that die under five years of age, per 1,000 live births.

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Population Pyramids and The Demographic Transition

Stage 1 -

  • A very wide base due to its extremely high birth rate.
  • Infant and child mortality rates are high so sides of the pyramids curve in very quickly.
  • Death rate is high in all age groups, so life expectancy is low. The result is a very narrow apex and the shortest of all the pyramids.

Stage 2 -

  • Stage 1 and 2 pyramids are similar in shape.
  • Death rate begins to fall so sides of the pyramid are slightly less concave.
  • The apex sohws a few extra elderly people as life expectancy begins to rise.

Stage 3 -

  • Narrowing base shows the decrease in birth rate.
  • Becomes straighter sided.
  • Birth rate decreases quickly.
  • Health improvements allow even more people to live into old age.
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Population Pyramids and The Demographic Transition

Stage 4 - 

  • Pyramid has become straight sided, showing a steady low birth rate.
  • High life expectancy allows most people to live into the 60s and 70s.
  • Significant minority into their 80s.

Stage 5 -

  • Middle-aged generations much larger than those of children because of low birth rate.
  • Increasing proportions in the very elderly group.
  • A Stage 5 population is not sustainable.
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How Can A Population Become Sustainable? CASE STUD

One-Child Policy In China - During the 1970s, China was heading for famine unless severe changes were made quickly. A 'baby boom' arrived and the population was growing too fast to be sustainable.

Beginning in 1979, the one-child policy said that each couple -

  • Must not marry until their late 20s.
  • Must have only one successful pregnancy.
  • Must be sterilised after the first child or must abort any future pregnancies.
  • Would recieve a 5 to 10 per cent salary rise for limiting their family to one child.
  • Would have priority housing, pension and family benefits, including free education for the single child.

Any couples disobeying the rules and having a second child were severly penalised - 

  • A 10 per cent salary cut was enforced.
  • FIne was so large, it would bankrupt many households.
  • Have to pay for the education of both children and for the health care for all the family.
  • Second child born abroad are not penalised, but they are not allowed to become Chinese citizens.
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How Can A Population Become Sustainable? CASE STUD

The problems and benefits of the policy - 

  • Women are forced to have abortions as late as the ninth month of pregnancy.
  • Women were placed under tremendois pressure from their families, workmates, the 'Granny Police' and their own consciences and feelings.
  • Local officials and central government had power over peoples private lives.
  • Chinese society prefers sons over daughters. Some girls were placed in orphanages or allowed to die in the hope of having a son the second time round.
  • Chinese children have a reputation for being over-indulged because they are only children, hence the name 'Little Emperors'

Advantages/Disadvantages -

  • Prevented 400 million births.
  • The fertility rate has dropped from 5.7 in 1970 to around about 1.8 today.
  • Older policys help slow birth rate down. People want fewer children so they become wealthier.
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How Can A Population Become Sustainable? CASE STUD

Changes to the one-child policy in the 1990s and 2000s -

  • Young couples who are only children are allowed two children.
  • The attitude of having a daugther has improved.
  • With increasing wealth, more people are able to break the rules.

One major consequence of the one-child policy is gender imbalance. Some girls have been rejected, so there are now 60 million more young men than young women. Not all young men will be able to marry.

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What Alternative Birth Control Programmes Exist? C

An alternative population in Kerala, India -

India was the first to launch a national family planning programme as early as 1952. This included not just contraception but many social changes. The south-western state of Kerala, with its socialist/communist government, has focused on social changes to create a society that encourages smaller families. Its decrease in birth rate has been the most dramatic in India.

  • Population of 32 million.
  • High population density.
  • Lowest growth rate in India.
  • Stage 4 in the demographic Transistion Model.
  • Improved education.
  • Male/Female equality.
  • Adult literacy classes.
  • Educating people to the benefits of small families.
  • Reducing infant mortality.
  • Vaccinate children.
  • Free contraception.
  • All have the same size land, so no benefit for large families.
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What Are The Issues And Opportunities For An Agein

  • Richer countries have ageing populations (lower birth rates, smaller families, better healthcare, people living longer).
  • Young retired people can contribute to a countrys economy but in general older people have the most expensive needs (healthcare).

The Issues - 

Health Care - Demand for health care increases because more illnesses occur in old age. The elderly visit their GP more. More appointments at hospitals.

Social Services - Elderly people need services like nursing homes, day-care centres etc. This puts financial pressure on a country.

The Pension Crisis - Life expectancy has increased in developed countries. In MEDCs, people expect pensions for the rest of their lives. 

The situation has a positive side too. Younger retired people contribute a great deal to the economy. They are relatively wealthy and have lots of leisure time. They spend money on travel and recreation, providing jobs in the sevice sector. Many do voluntary work.

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Ageing Population. CASE STUDY!

France encourages people to have children to produce a more favourable age structure and dependency ratio. This has had some effect, but has not been entirely successful.

Couples are given a range of incentives to have children :

  • Three years of paid parental leave, which can be used by mothers or fathers.
  • Full-time schooling starts at the age of three, fully paid for by the government.
  • Day care for children younger than three is subsidised by the government.
  • The more children a woman has, the earlier she will be allowed to retire on a full pension.

dependency ratio - The balance between people who are independent (work and pay tax) and those who depend on them. Ideally, the fewer dependants for each independent person, the better off economically a country is.

The formula for thiss is - No. of dependent people ÷ No. of independent people x 100

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What Are The Impacts Of International Migration?

Push Factors - Are the negative aspects of a place that encourage people to move away.

Pull Factors - Are the attractions and opportunities of a place that encourage people to move there.

Migration - The movement of people from one permanent home to another, with the intention of staying at least a year. This move may be within a country or between countries.

Immigrant - Someone entering a new country with the intention of living there.

Emigrant - Someone leaving their country of residence to move to another country. 

Economic Migrant - Someone trying to improve their standard of living, who moves voluntarily.

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Factors Affecting Tourism's Growth.

Growth in toruism is explained by three sets of factors -

Social And Economic Factors - People have become wealther. Incomes are larger and so is disposable income. Most families have two working parents. People have fewer children. Car owership has grown rapidly. People have more leisure time. Holiday leave time has increased. Life expectancy has risen. Many have good pensions.

Improvements In Technology - Travel today is quick and easy. Flying has become cheaper and booking online is quick and easy.

Expansion Of Holiday Choice - During the 1950s and 1960s costal resorts were popular and in the UK the National Parks were opening and offering new opportunites. Packages are now available to destinations all over the world that offer a huge variety of sights and activities.

Many people choose to visit cities to enjoy the culture associated with museums, art galleries, architecture or shops and restaurants. Cities such as London, Rome and Paris have a huge amount to offer tourists of every age. The natural landscape is a major 'pull' factor, particually the Alps in Europe.

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The Lake District. CASE STUDY!

Attractions And Opportunities For Tourism -

It became a National Park in 1951 and is famous for its stunning scenery, abundant wildlife and cultural heritage. 

Most people sail between the main centres of Windermere town and Ambleside. Small boats are allowed on many lakes.

Walking is one of the most popular reasons why people visit the Lake District.

Historical and cultural sites also attract tourists. The Lake District has been occupied since the end of the ice age. THe land has been farmed for centuries, leaving a distinctive field pattern. 

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The Lake District. CASE STUDY!

Impacts Of Tourism -

There are many times the number of visitors in the Lake District National Park as local population: 12 million tourists to 42,239 residents. The impacts are potentially huge and must be managed as well as possible. There are both negative and positive impacts.

Traffic Problems - Over 89% of visitors come by car, often just for the day. Many roads are narrow and winding. Buses and large delivery vehicles have to use these to service both locals and tourists. Congestion and parknig are serious problems.

Honeypot Sites - The Lake District has both physical and cultural honeypot sites. When mass number of tourists walk up a mountain, it suffers from serious foot erosion. Honeypot sites need to provide access and facilities while remaining as unspoilt as possible.

Pressure On Property - Some local people make a good income from owning and letting such property.

Environmental Issues - Watersports are not allowed on some lakes. The main issue is the wash from the faster vehicles erodes the shore. FUel spills are not uncommon, causing pollution.

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Mass Tourism.

Advantages -

  • Brings jobs
  • New infrastructure
  • Construction jobs
  • Leisure facilities

Disadvantages -

  • The activity may be seasonal
  • Does not appeal to wealthier people
  • Few local employees are well paid
  • New buildings need land
  • Different foods

An example of Mass Tourism is Jamaica.

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What Attracts People To Extreme Environments?

Extreme Environments - Locations with particularly difficult environments where the development of tourism has only recently occured due to a niche market demand for somewhere different with physical challenges.

Examples are - 

Greenland, Desert, The Amazon, Nepal.

The Target Market - 

Adventure tourists look for physical challenges and risks. There are often around 30 years old, unmarried and without children, have high-powered jobs and good income - these trips are expensive.

Tourism in Antarctica -

Tourists only spend a short time ashore, but the impacts do not always reflect this. They want to see the best picturesque areas, and also see the animals, especially penguins.

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