Human Geography



Industrial Giant: China

Government Legislation

  • China's policy was changed in 1977, foreign investment encouraged
  • Special economic zones in 1980- 1994
  • Tax incentives, increasingly wealthy population
  • Wages 95% lower than USA

The Olympics Factor

  • 2008 Beijing Olympics
  • Showcase nation- opening ceremony- convery China as open and friendly
  • Image portrayed helped stimulate further investment

The Three Gorges Dam

  • 2/3 of China's energy is from coal, 7% in 2006 from HEP 
  • Biggest dam in world, 22 500 mW capacity when fully operation
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Increasing Food Production: Flower Growing in Kenya

Facts and Advantages

  • Water is supplied from surrounding lakes 
  • Cheap labour is available for picking and packaging 
  • There's a lack of laws linked to work and health and safety
  • Warm, dry climate is perfect as cash crops can grow all year- fertile soil (but used for flowers NOT FOOD)
  • Increase in wealth for the area, income to generate development 
  • Fasting growing industry in Kenya, continual growth since 1970s 
  • Increase in number of fair trade companies, 500 000 people depend on the industry
  • There are good transport links to ship the flowers to Europe


  • Poor wages mean the income is small, some workers live on £1 a day 
  • Removal of water supply means there may be drought for some, Maasai are struggling to the E and N of Mt Kenya
  • Workers are using banned chemicals- cause rashes and chest problems 
  • Fertilisers pollute wildlife and water supply, Kenya Flower Council now monitoring industry 
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Small Industrial Region, Global Connections: Motorsport Valley


  • Central in the UK, Silverstone is in the middle of Motorsport Valley 
  • Near major motorways- M40 and M1 
  • 6 nearby airports including East Midlands 
  • Centre of an engineering cluster, has a multiplier effect


  • 10% of people from Northamptonshire work there 
  • 38 500 jobs, 25 000 engineers
  • 4500 companies, turnover of £6 billion

Types of Industry 

  • 200 different firms connected to Motorsport
  • Performance engineering, road and racing vehicles, production of components, research
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TNC: Toyota


  • Largest car manufacturer in the world
  • Head office in Japan, plants in every continent

Reasons for locating in rich countries

  • Richer markets, lucrative (great deal of profit) trading blocks such as EU
  • Government incentives, research and development by good design teams 

Reasons for locating in poor countries 

  • Land is cheaper to buy 
  • Government incentives 
  • Health and safety not as strict- cheaper
  • Cheaper workforce, flexible, long hours 
  • Unions are weak 
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UK Wind Power

  • Strong reliable winds needed, average of 5km a second 
  • High landscape or site exposed to prevailing winds, 10% less windy means 20% less power
  • In the UK, sites tend to be on exposed coasts or upland areas (West of Britain)
  • 176 wind farms in 2008
  • Government aims to generate 10% of electricity from renewable sources


  • Renewable, non-polluting, low carbon footprint
  • Relatively cheap source after setting up fees 
  • Farmers can rent land 


  • Noise of blades can disturb locals, affect visual landscape therefore property prices 
  • Only areas with a lot of wind are suitable
  • Large numbers of turbines needed to produce sufficient electricity (minimum of 20 turbines in wind farms)
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  • Indonesia comprises 17 500 islands, population of 240 million, 4th most populous country 
  • 1950s and 60s saw rapid population growth- Java, Bali and Madura in danger of becoming overpopulated
  • 1969: transmigration from Java to West Papua, chance to escape poverty and earn money farming
  • Between 1979 and 1984, more than 2.5 million involved- over 1 million settled in West Papua alone 
  • Financed by World Bank and Asian Development Bank, recent financial difficulties scaled it down 
  • 2006: 20 000 families... By 2010: 250 000 families wanted to move 


  • Economic: didn't reduce poverty, redistributed it- many new migrants lack farming skills- settlements poorly planned with few facilities- resettlement was expensive, $7000 per family in 1980s
  • Environmental: accelerating deforestation, over cultivation led to soil erosion 
  • Social: Clashes between migrants and indigenous people (2001: hundreds died- traditional land rights ignored- religion clashes between Islamist migrants and Christian locals 
  • Political: some suggest it was encouraged to increase national security and control indigenous people
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Ageing Population: France

  • Pro-natal policy encouraging people to have children to produce a more favourable age structure and dependency ratio 
  • Couples given a range of incentives 
  • Three years paid parental leave, used by mothers or fathers
  • Full time schooling starts at 3, fully paid by the government 
  • Day care for those under 3 is subsidised by the government 
  • The more children a women has, the earlier she can retire on full pension 
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Migration in EU: Poland to UK

  • Since 2004, 1.5 million Eastern Europeans entered UK, 2/3 of whom are Polish 
  • Most found formal jobs with better pay than they'd receive back home 
  • Earn on average 5x more, cost of UK living only 2x as much 
  • Most migrants pay tax, contributes to economy 
  • Some work in informal economy- working and not paying tax
  • Use UK health and education services- adding to government cost 
  • Overall, UK has benefitted from influx of Polish migrants 
  • 545 000 Polish passport holders living in the UK, compared with 75 000 in 2003, the year before they joined the EU 
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Migation outside the EU: Africa to Europe

  • Main departure points: West Coast of Africa, Northern Morocco, Tunisia, Libya
  • Closest European country: Spain 
  • Once detained, they can be expelled, sent back or sent to mainland Spain
  • The authorities doubled the size of border fences in 2005 when many attempted to scale them 
  • Tightening security in one place seems to move it elsewhere
  • Majority of African migrants are in Europe, with 4.6 million in 2007 
  • In the US there were only around 890 000 
  • 2/3 of Africans in Europe are from North Africa
  • Many send money home each year
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Safari: Kenya


  • Climate- tropical, sun all year, hot and humid at coast 
  • Natural beauty- Mt Kenya, Kilimanjaro, Lake Victoria, 6000km Great American Rift Valley
  • Wildlife- National parks including 'Big 5'
  • Cultural- local tribes such as Maasai-  and Coastal holidays- SE of Kenya, fine sands and coral reefs, marine life


  • Money and jobs- Kenya's biggest earner for foreign exchange, multiplier effect
  • Infrastructure- encourages building on new roads and better communications
  • Conservation- National Parks created, encourage people to protect environment


  • Leakage: a lot of money paid never reaches Kenya
  • Bad for animals and erosion (disturbances and Jeeps) loss of culture (Maasai forced out National Parks) 
  • Coral reefs ruined, social problems such as drugs and crime
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Coastal Resort: Eastbourne

  • South coast between Brighton and Hastings
  • Tourism started when train and pier was built around 1870 
  • Major tourist resort from 1900-1960, people had more time and money, consolidation period
  • 1960-2000, tourism declined, hotels became run down and closed, stagnant period 
  • 2000 onwards, started to rejuvenate
  • Events such as Eastbourne Extreme, Airbourne, Bonfire society, Tennis
  • Chain hotels such as the Travel Inn and boutique hotels added variety  
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Ecotourism: Belize

  • Caribbean side of Central America
  • Longest living Barrier Reef in the world, well looked after 
  • Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary- only jaguar reserve 
  • Big tropical rainforest, 25% employed in tourism 
  • Over 42% of land protected in national parks, nature reserves, or wildlife sanctuaries 


  • Small groups taken around island, pay more and do less damage
  • Manatee are endangered, less than 1000 left in Belize, boats must turn off engine and paddle
  • Public meetings happen before any tourist development- locals can have their say 
  • Conservation tax- £3 per person- improvements of infrastructure + reduces risk of env. damage
  • Drinking and washing water comes from cisterns that trap rainwater 
  • Local communities benefit as there is less leakage
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