Cold War in Asia- How successfully did the US seek to contain communism in Asia to 1950?

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Reconstruction of Japan

1. Punish and Reform 1945

  • War crime trials.
  • Army dismatled and demilliterised, PoWs released.
  • New basic freedom eg political parties existed, equal rights for women.

2. Soft Cold War Policy 1947

  • Improve trade and industry. Land reforms.
  • 1949- $500 million aid from US to Japan.

2. Hard Cold War Policy 1949

  • Rearm Japan to protect Asia from communism.

4. Integrated Cold War Policy 1951

  • Trade embargo with China
  • San Francisco Peace Treaty 1951- J independence, reparations, loss of land, US troops withdraw from J.
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Failure to prevent a Communist victory in China 19

  • Nationalist= Jiang Jieshi
  • Communist= Mao Zedong

Success of the CCP (Chinese Communist Party)

  • Popular with the peasants.
  • Highly motivated, good leadership
  • Rural support for land reforms1947-48
  • Reduced taxes.
  • Peasants didfn't support communism, but were forced to.

Failure of Nationalists:

  • Incompetent- poor leadershipp
  • US supplied Jiang Jieshi with aid, but it was like "money down a rathole".
  • Lack of support for policy
  • October 1949 Mao Zedong created People's Republic of China (PRC)
  • Fall of communisim 1949 in China.
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Significance of China's Fall

  • Communists could dominate sea lanes to Japan, Philippines and other countries.
  • August 1949 USSR successfully tested atomic bomb, US lost nuclear supremacy (US had successfully tested theirs in August 1945)
  • Acheson wanted withdrawal of US support from Nationalist China, but Truman refused so he wasn't seen as pro-communist.
  • Sino-Soviet Treaty 1950 gave Mao Zedong $300 million of Soviet aid- Mao knew China couldn't stand alone, only real choice of ally.
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Truman Ignored Korea

  • Failed to keep it for their Japanese satellite.
  • Allowed Stalin to liberate nothern industrial area.
  • Not included in 'Defensive Perimeter Strategy'.

Kennan's Long Telegram

  • Febuary 1946
  • Sowed the seeds of anti-communism, wanted to fill power vaccuums left by Japan, suggested USSR were aggressive,

Truman Doctrine

  • Febuary 1947
  • Speech advertising policy of containment. Protect freedom of countries threatened.

Marshall Aid 

  • December 1947
  • $400 million of economic aid to reconstruct Europe, to stop communism spreading to Europe.
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Defensive Perimeter Strategy & NSC68

Defensive Perimeter Strategy 1949

  • A defensive line of military bases, formed as the US feared an expansion of Soviet influence in the area.
  • Exluded Korea and Taiwan.

NSC68 1950

  • Report issued by US National Security Council
  • More than trippled defence spending up to $50 billion per year.
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Change or Continuity of Policy?

  • More aid given, NSC68
  • Used model states in Japan, but supported a corrupt leader in China.
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US Policy in Philippines

Creating a model state

  • Established democratic gov, supporting Manuel Roxas (man not movement).

Prosperous Filipino economy

  • Improved- $620 million injected by US and infrastructure restored.

Market for US goods

Source of raw material for US army

  • Set up Filipino military police under US army control.
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