Reconstruction of Japan
1. Punish and Reform 1945
- War crime trials.
- Army dismatled and demilliterised, PoWs released.
- New basic freedom eg political parties existed, equal rights for women.
2. Soft Cold War Policy 1947
- Improve trade and industry. Land reforms.
- 1949- $500 million aid from US to Japan.
2. Hard Cold War Policy 1949
- Rearm Japan to protect Asia from communism.
4. Integrated Cold War Policy 1951
- Trade embargo with China
- San Francisco Peace Treaty 1951- J independence, reparations, loss of land, US troops withdraw from J.
Failure to prevent a Communist victory in China 19
- Nationalist= Jiang Jieshi
- Communist= Mao Zedong
Success of the CCP (Chinese Communist Party)
- Popular with the peasants.
- Highly motivated, good leadership
- Rural support for land reforms1947-48
- Reduced taxes.
- Peasants didfn't support communism, but were forced to.
Failure of Nationalists:
- Incompetent- poor leadershipp
- US supplied Jiang Jieshi with aid, but it was like "money down a rathole".
- Lack of support for policy
- October 1949 Mao Zedong created People's Republic of China (PRC)
- Fall of communisim 1949 in China.
Significance of China's Fall
- Communists could dominate sea lanes to Japan, Philippines and other countries.
- August 1949 USSR successfully tested atomic bomb, US lost nuclear supremacy (US had successfully tested theirs in August 1945)
- Acheson wanted withdrawal of US support from Nationalist China, but Truman refused so he wasn't seen as pro-communist.
- Sino-Soviet Treaty 1950 gave Mao Zedong $300 million of Soviet aid- Mao knew China couldn't stand alone, only real choice of ally.
Truman Ignored Korea
- Failed to keep it for their Japanese satellite.
- Allowed Stalin to liberate nothern industrial area.
- Not included in 'Defensive Perimeter Strategy'.
Kennan's Long Telegram
- Febuary 1946
- Sowed the seeds of anti-communism, wanted to fill power vaccuums left by Japan, suggested USSR were aggressive,
- Febuary 1947
- Speech advertising policy of containment. Protect freedom of countries threatened.
- December 1947
- $400 million of economic aid to reconstruct Europe, to stop communism spreading to Europe.
Defensive Perimeter Strategy & NSC68
Defensive Perimeter Strategy 1949
- A defensive line of military bases, formed as the US feared an expansion of Soviet influence in the area.
- Exluded Korea and Taiwan.
- Report issued by US National Security Council
- More than trippled defence spending up to $50 billion per year.
Change or Continuity of Policy?
- More aid given, NSC68
- Used model states in Japan, but supported a corrupt leader in China.
US Policy in Philippines
Creating a model state
- Established democratic gov, supporting Manuel Roxas (man not movement).
Prosperous Filipino economy
- Improved- $620 million injected by US and infrastructure restored.
Market for US goods
Source of raw material for US army
- Set up Filipino military police under US army control.