How and why has population changed?
Global population has rapidly increased since the 1800s due to baby booms after wars and people needing to work in the industrial revolution. however, wars have given the population a massive drop over small periods of time but it doesn't take long for it to grow again. there are also pro and anti-natalist policy across the world; anti-natalist is in Italy where they offer £695 in Euros (1000 Euros) due to its mainly ageing popuation and in China there is an anti-natalist policy as couples would have lots of children (about 5) and there was already. a population of over 1.3 billion people. ther graph below shows how population has a very high natural increase over recent years. it mainly increasen in developing countries as they need more children to work farms and the medical care is worse so at least one child is often expected to die. there is rouhghly 7 billion people in the world today and is predicted to hit 8 billion in the next 20 years. it is difficult to predict these changes however as countries can introduce a policy anytime or a war could break out.
Demographic transition models with BR and DR
a demographic transition model shows what stage a country is at in the process of development (countries growing economically using the multiplier effect where money makes more money). a developing country such as tanzania and india would be in stage 1 to 3 whereas developed countries such as the USA and the UK are on stage 4 but very upfront countries such as Japan and Germany are on stage 5. the DTM shows us how the population changes involving birth rates and death rates effect the natural increase and therefore the development. factors that can effect BR and DR are the medical care; good medical care means less deaths but poor medical care means more deaths but therefore more births. also, development because certain jobs can tire a body like manual labour on a farm. also some families want more babie so they can work as soon as possible ans bring in some money.
Somalia case study
Somalia is an example of a developing country. the population pyramis below shows us this because there is a high birth rate and high death rate as there aren't as many elderly. the cause of this youthful population is that there is poor medical care here and lots of manual labour is needed to work the rural areas. the impact of this is a large working class in the next decade and therefore a huge boost to the economy and help to the development and perhaps medical care too. the response to this may be more research into medical care and contraception to control the BR more.
Italy case study
Italy is an example of a developing country. in 2002 italy introduced the pro natalist policy because they had a severely ageing population. this was due to italy being a developed country and the parents not seeing children as a necessity so the fertility rate of women was only 1.2 per couple. they offered 1000 Euros for each second child a couple had. at the moment people aren't aware enough because there's no current economic crisis due to the elderly putting stable ammounts of money into money sources such as tourism.
Managing populations; Pro-Natalist policy - China
some countries need to manage their populations because there aren't enough recources/isn't enough money being made. in 1979 China introduced a pro natalist policy as momentum was still increasing the population from the encouragement to do this via Dictator Mao. the policy was first as an ask for just 2 children but it didn't work so it soon became a must-have one child.
- 300million births reduced (estimate)
- more recources
- more affordable living
- risen from youthful population
- femal infanticide increase; couples want a male child so there is an uneven ratio between genders; men:women = 117:100
- late abortions (as late as 8 months)
- "spoilt terrors" of children; one child means all the money, love and affection is on that one child
- could get out of control so population lowers too much
the graph below shows the huge population climb that they have had to deal with:
Population/migration definitions (keywords)
- Population a group of people within an area
Distribution the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume
Densely an area with lots of people living in it
Sparsley an area that has a few people living in it
Birth rate number of births in a year per 1,000 population
Death rate number of deaths in a year per 1,000 population
Infant mortality the number of babies out of every thousand that dies before the age of one
Demographics the statistics of a population e.g. age, income, education
Demographic transition model the transition of high birth rates and death rates to low birth rates and death rates that occurs as part of the economic development of a country from a pre industrial to a post industrial economy
Migration the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Push factors things that make people want to leave an area
Pull factors things that encourage a person to an area
Immigrant a person who leaves one country to permanently settle in another
Migrant a person who leaves his/her country of origin to seek residence in another country
Emigrate when a person leaves there country of origin to settle in another country
Migrate whne a person moves from one country to another and settles there
Refugee a person who has been forced to leave his/her home because of fear of persecution
Dependency ration the ration of people who defined as dependant (under 15 years old and above 64 years old)
Population pyramid a bar graph showing the population divided into males and females in different age groups
Census the process of obtaining information from every member of a population
Policy a plan of action adopted by a individual or a social groups
Aging population occurs when the average age of a population is getting older
Life expectancy the average number of years a person is expected to live
Replacement rate the total fertility that exactly balances births and deaths, so the population growth is zero
Exponential growth a change in population that is proportional to the size of the population
the population is affected by healthcare, money spent on babies, DR and BR. it can also be affected by migration - push/pull factors. a PushF is something that makes someone want to leave a country; high living cost, low GDP per capita, unemployment, poor health care or even war. a PullF may be enployment, safety/peace, more money and better health care.