Hot deserts

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  • Created by: xsammyx
  • Created on: 20-05-16 20:03

More Thar Desert

Sustainably manage

  • Stabilsing Sand Dunes- Sand dunes are very mobile, to stop them from moving and covering roads and houses- farmers have planted blocks of ber trees to act as natural walls stopping the sand. 
  • Forestry- Ber tree (plum tree) grows large fruits which are sold for profit- allows people to improve their quality of life.
  • Thar National Park- 3000sqkm of land is protected to save endangered and rare wildlife.
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TDW

  • Sheds leaves in autumn, grows back in spring- reduces water from leaves.
  • Wildflowers (bluebells) grow on the forest floor in spring before the trees grow leaves and block the sunlight

Case Study: Epping Forest, North East London

Uses: 

  • Golf- sports
  • Walking for families, couples
  • Tourism
  • Fishing

Management

  • Pollarding- Cutting off the tops of trees and letting them regrow helps maintain tree height
  • Managing facilities- car parks, footpaths
  • 1600 hectacres of land designated as a SSSI to protect anicent trees
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Managing Tropical Rainforests

Sustainably managing Borneo

Eco Tourism- Travel around the forest sustainably- activities such as: walking, PROS: tourist can explore the rainforest without damaging the environment, gives local people money. CONS:Expensive

Sustainable Logging- certain trees are cut down (national forest polocy) PROS increases the amount of trees in Borneo. CONS: time consuming.

Replanting trees- planting trees to replace the ones that have been cut down. PROS: cheap and trees are replanted easily. CONS: trees can a long time to grow

Educating people- teaching the people the importance of the rainforest and the effects of deforesation. PROS: People can learn how to protect the environment. CONS: not everone will listen.

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Impacts of deforesation

Impacts of Deforestation

Economic- Malaysia is the largest exporter of tropical wood therefore they earn a lot of income, improving quality of life.

HEP supplies cheap electricity for local people

Social- Large number of people employed= more money=better life. However they work long hours with little pay. Conflict between the long teran keran community and plantation owners. Environmental- Threatens survival of many animals and plants. HEP can lead to flooding, once land has been flooded, the area is destroyed forever as nutrients are washed away.

Policitcal- Poor rules and regulations mean people can destroy the rainforest whenever they want. Malaysian government hace pleged to limit the expansion of palm oil plantations.

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Ecosystems

Ecosystem is an area where organisms interact with non- living things. E.g Pond,hedgerow examples of an small scale ecosystem.

  • Producer- organism that uses sunlight enery to produce food
  • Consumer- Organism that gets it energy by eating other organisms
  • Food Chain- shows one link between consumers and producers
  • Food web- many links between consumers and producers
  • Decomposers- organism which break down plant and animal matter and return nutrients into the soil e.g bacteria
  • Nutrient cycle-  Dead material is decomposed and nutrients are put into the soil, nutrients are taken in by plants and these plants are eaten by consumers. When they die the nutrients are returned into the soil.

A change to one part of thr ecosystems impacts other parts e.g. hot & dry summer= reduced plant growth= fewer food for organisms= numbers drop of all the consumers.

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TDW

Temperate Decidious Woodlands

Climate: 

  • 4 seasons 
  • Average Temp. 10'C
  • Average Rainfall 750mm- 1500mm per year
  • Cool winters, warm summers

Found outside of tropics ( northen hemisphere) e.g. Europe, East Asia

Vegatation

  • Canopy layer e,g Oak trees
  • Shrub Layer
  • Ground/Herb layer e.g Bluebells

Plant adaptions

  • Sheds leaves in autumn, grows back in spring- reduces water from leaves.
  • Wildflowers (bluebells) grow on the forest floor in spring before the trees grow leaves and block the sunlight

Case Study: Epping Forest, North East London

Uses: 

  • Golf- sports
  • Walking for families, couples
  • Tourism
  • Fishing

Management

  • Pollarding- Cutting off the tops of trees and letting them regrow helps maintain tree height
  • Managing facilities- car parks, footpaths
  • 1600 hectacres of land designated as a SSSI to protect anicent trees
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Thar Desert

Thar Desert- India

How Humans Use The Thar Desert...

  • Commerical Farming- Grow loads of fruit and veg to sell and make a profit from, large farms of wheat & cotton are also grown for profit. Canal supplies drinking water for the Locals.
  • Subsistence Farming- Grow enough food for farmers and family to eat
  • Tourism- Locals act as guides and provide transport to make income-  tourists can hire camels-:Jaisalmer- Safaris on camels and other activities: Biking.

Challenges...

  • Water Management- Farmers are using too much water to grow crops
  • Population Pressure- Thar desert is densely populated and is increasing- not enough food. 
  • Salinisation- Sun evaporates water from the ground, salt comes up to surface and is toxic as it kills plants
  • People are damaging the desert
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Case Study: Tropical Forest

Borneo, Malaysia

Deforestation- Removal of trees

Uses-

  • Logging- more valuable wood is cut down and is used in many ways such as: paper and furniture
  • Mining-   Mining is where trees and vegetation is removed and the soil is dug away. Removes rock and minerals from the ground
  • Hydroelectric Power- Provies electricity. Dam is built across a river, this holds back water and allows people to control it. Area behind is flooded to provide  a reservoir and water is allowed in to turn a turbine where electricity is generated. 
  • Palm Oil- Slash & burn trees to plant crops to grow palm oil. Borneo is the largest exporter of palm oil
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Tropical Rainforests

Climate:

  • Average Temp 27'C
  • No Seasons
  • 2000+ mm Rainfall per year
  • Dry, Hot Mornings, Wet afternoons.

Found around the Equator: Brazil, Malaysia.

Vegetation.

  • Emergent Layer- tallest trees.
  • Canopy- most of the sunlight
  • Under Canopy -
  • Ground Layer
  • Soil-  isnt fertile as the heavy rain washes the nutrients away.
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Hot deserts

  • Climate:  Less than 250mm of Rainfall
  • -Hot day, Cold night 

Found along Tropics

  • Plant Adaptations- 
    • Yellow Desert Daisy - Small,hairy leaves to help reduce water loss through evapotranspiration (small surface area). 
    • Yellow to reflect the sun and keep cool.
  • Giant Saguaro Cactus- shallow wide roots close to surface to soak up water as water is scarce.
  • Thick stem to store water.
  • Small surface area to decrease water loss.

 

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Rainforest Adaption

Plant Adaptions

  • Lianas- use the tree trunks to climb to the canopy to reach the sunlight.
  • Drip Trips- helps them shed heavy rainfall so they dont get damaged
  • Epiphytes- plants that grow on the bracnhes of trees for support.
  • Evergreen trees- they keep their leaves al year to take advantage of the continual growing season
  • Tall trees-have buttress roots- to support them in the shallow soil.
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