History Unit 1

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History- The Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference took place in July/August 1945.

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History- The Tehran Conference

The Tehran conference took place in 1943.

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History- The Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference involved the US, SU, and GB.

- Truman and Atlee have now taken over Roosevelt and Churchill.

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History- The Tehran Conference

The Tehran Conference involved the 'big 3'- USA, Soviet Union, and Great Britan.

(Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill)

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History- The Potsdam Conference

What they agreed:

- The Nazi party gets banned (the leader of the Nazi's tried for war criminals)

- Define the boarder between Germany and Poland.

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History- The Tehran Conference

What they agreed on:

- The SU (Soviet Union) had a 'sphere of influence' over Eastern Europe.

What they disagreed on:

- Germany's future.

- Stalin(SU) wanted to punish Germany whereas, Churchill(GB) and Roosevelt(USA) wanted to re-build Germany.

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History- The Potsdam Conference

What they disagreed:

- The SU did not trust GB and the US.

- GB and US make atomic bombs and do not tell the SU (lack of trust)

- SU want to destroy Germany whereas, GB and USA want to re-build it.

- SU denied mediteranian Naval base by GB and USA.

- SU set up a communist government in Poland.

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History- The Yalta Conference

The Yalta conference took place in Febuary 1945.

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History- Key Features Of The Uprising

- Free elections.

-Hungary to develop trade links with the West.

- An end to the one-party system.

- Freedom of the press.

- Freedom of speech.

- Freedom of worship.

- Hungary to become a neutral state.

- Free trade unions.

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History- The Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference involved the US, GB, and SU.

(Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin)

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

Krushchev was the leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin.

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History- The Yalta Conference

What they agreed:

- Germany should be divided into 4 zones which would be controlled by the, US, GB, SU and France.

- Berlin split into 4 zones (SU zone)

- Eastern European countries will have free elections to decide who governs them.

- SU will join fighting against Japan.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

The hungarian uprising began in October 1956, after Krushchev sent troops and tanks to Budapest to try to restore peace, and on October 25th the tanks killed twelve people and wounding more than 100. On the same day, Janos Kadar took over as temporary prime minister.

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April 1945

April 1945- Roosevelt dies and is replaced by Truman.

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History- Key Features Of The Uprising

Janos Kadar was the temporary prime minister of Hungary and was a Communist Leader.

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History- Key Features Of The Uprising

Although Janos Kadar took over as temporary prime minister it only lasted one day, as the following day, Nagy was re-instated as prime minister.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

The death of Stalin led many Hungarians to hope that Hungary also would be 'de-Stalinised'. In July 1956, the 'Stalinist' Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party, Rakosi, fell from power.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

During October 1956, students, workers and soldiers in Hungary attacked the AVH (the secret police) and Russian soldiers, and smashed a statue of Stalin.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

During October 1956, students, workers and soldiers in Hungary attacked the AVH (the secret police) and Russian soldiers, and smashed a statue of Stalin.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

On 24 October 1956 Imre Nagy - a moderate and a westerniser communist leader - took over as prime minister.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

For five days, there was freedom in Hungary. The new Hungarian government introduced democracy, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion. Cardinal Mindszenty, the leader of the Catholic Church, was freed from prison.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

On 3 November 1956, Nagy announced that Hungary was going to leave the Warsaw Pact. However, Khrushchev was not going to allow this. He claimed he had received a letter from Hungarian Communist leaders asking for his help.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

Reasons for the Hungarian Uprising:

 Khrushchev's policy of 'de-Stalinisation' caused problems in many Eastern European Communist countries, where people hated the hard-line Stalinist regimes that Russia had put in place. There was also trouble in Poland in 1956, and Khrushchev had to send in Russian troops.

The Hungarians were patriotic, and they hated Russian control, especially:

The secret police called the AVH in Hungary.

  • Russian control of the economy, which had made Hungary poor.
  • Russian control of what the schools taught.
  • Censorship and lack of freedom.

The Hungarians were religious, but the Communist Party had banned religion, and imprisoned Cardinal Mindszenty.

Hungarians thought that the United Nations or the new US president, Eisenhower, would help them.

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History- The Hungarian Uprising

Results of the Hungarian Uprising:

  1. Repression in Hungary - thousands of Hungarians were arrested and imprisoned. Some were executed and 200,000 Hungarian refugees fled to Austria.
  2. Russia stayed in control behind the Iron Curtain - no other country tried to get rid of Russia troops until Czechoslovakia in 1968.
  3. Polarisation of the Cold War - people in the West were horrified - many Communists left the Communist Party - and Western leaders became more determined to contain communism.
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