Henry VIII - The First Tudor
-Henry married Elizabeth of York, this helped him to end the Civil War between the York and Lancaster Families
-Henry banned private armies so that none of the Barons could fight against him
-He made sure that he had the best weapons so that the Baron's castles were unsafe
-He forced people to give him money so that he had enough money to look after the country
-He made deals with other countries so that he was not attacked
-He used symbols to show how powerful he and his family were
RULED: Aug, 1485-April, 1509
Henry VIII - The Second Tudor
When young, Henry was a good Catholic, an athlete and a big spender! He was nicknamed "Henry the Great"!
In pictures, he always made himself look grand by using symbols including daggers to symbolise that he will fight for his people and carpet and curtains to symbolise his wealth.
RULED- April 1509-Jan 1547
The Reformation and Henry's Break With Rome
A Protestant is someone who protests aginst the Catholic Church because Martin Luther began the Reformation, where he wrote a list of 95 Theses which he thought were wrong with the Catholic Church.
The Reformation was the change from Catholic to Protestant which was led by Martin Luther. It was called the reform movement because it supposedly reformed the Catholic Church.
Why did Henry Break With Rome?
1. Love- Henry wanted to divorce Catherine and marry Anne, but the Pope would not allow it.
2. Money- Henry was almost bankrupt but if he closed the monasteries, he would gain their money.
3. Power- Henry is jealous of the Pope's power.
4. Faith- Martin Luther had showed Henry a brand new faith with which he could get everything he wanted.
Bloody Queen Mary
Was Mary a Bloody Queen? - my verdict
I think Mary was definitely an unpopular queen, however I don't think she was a bloody queen because capital punishment was common and other monarchs killed people too - they just used other methods.
The Spanish Armada
King Phillip of Spain decided to attack Elizabeth - he was upset that England was becoming Protestant.
In April 1558, the Armada set sail but was blown off course. It suffered damage and returned to port.
In July 1558 the Armada set sail again. It was spotted by the English on July 19th.
There was a battle and the English chased the Armada up the Channel.
On July 27th the Armada anchored near Calais. The English sent fire ships, which caused the Armada to flee.
The Armada wanted to get home but while sailing around Scotland encountered bad weather - only 67 ships returned safely to Spain.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots was caught plotting against Queen Elizabeth, who provided care and money for her since she ran from Scotland to England. Mary had been sending secret, coded messages from her home in the country via a beer barrel and a servant. However, the messages were intercepted by Sir Francis Walsingham, who worked for Queen Elizabeth. The letters were discovered to have discussed a plot against Elizabeth and finally agreed a time and place for it. Therefore Mary was charged with treason and will be executed.
Was Elizabeth "Good Queen Bess?"
-She was fair to both Catholics and Protestants
-She was faithful to her country
-She commissioned good tactics to be used, for example, the fire ships, against the Armada
-Her reign was called the Golden Age
-She refused marriage proposals which may have produced an heir.
-She killed her own cousin Queen Mary
-She was known for her temper
-She caused unrest because people didn't know who the monarch would be after her death.
The Gunpowder Plot
Happened 5th November 1605
A lot of suspicious things happened which have caused historians to believe that the whole plot was set up by the Government. These include the records for Gunpowder sales for 1605 being missing, Guy Fawkes' information possibly being untrue because of his state after being tortured, and the fact that the cellars weren't searched until one week after the Parliament first received the tip-off.