- Russia was a multi ethnical country and the Tsar had to keep them united
- He needed to maintain his own supreme political power
- The tsar had pressure from his advisors to reform, due to his Fathers past actions. This included the idea of an elected parliament to share political power with the Tsar.
- He wanted to return to conservatism and end further political reforms
- Radicals wanted to completely eliminated the Tsar
Repression and Reaction
- Aristocracy had little popular support so relied on the Tsar to keep thier power, this is mainly the Russian Orthadox Church.
- They supported Alexxander's campaign of repression
SLAVOPHILE = Wanted the Empire to be Autocratic and dominated by Russians. They also supported the repression
Russians were only half of the Russian Empires population.
Who wanted reform;
- Moderates = Liberals = Peacful political change, freedom of press, a national parliament that's elected by the educated and wealthy.
- Extremists = People's Will = Destory the Tsars rule, political and Economic power to the peasants.
ALL WANTED POLITICAL CHANGE, this meant they were repressed.
Casualties of the campaign
First = Alexander III's Liberal Ministers = Replaced by POBEDONOSTSEV from the Russian Orthadox Church. He had a lot of power and influence.
- Destory any terror organisations.
- All Political opponents were tried without a jury and faced execution or exile to Siberia.
- Press Freedom was restricted. Rigourous censorship.
- Okhrana (Secret Police), prevent dangerous ideas getting to the Russian People.
- Universities went under government supervision. Fee's increased only allowing elites the ability to afford it.
- In 1884 universities came under government control.
- This did not destory radicals such as the People Will.
- They operated underground.
- There were still attempts on Alexander III's life, this came down to Lenin's brother being arrested and executed.
Increased Central Control;
- 'Land Captains' = They replaced the locally elected Justice of peace. They enforced local laws. They were members of the landed class.
- In the Zemstva's the landed class were given the most political power.
- Primary schools went under the control of the Church.
- 1890 = the government exercised the right to choose their juries.
All of the above turned the clock back on social reform. It was all back under the control of the Tsar, landed class and the Russian Orthadox Church.