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William Harvey

He did comparative studies by observing animal hearts in action and found his finding applyed to Humans.

Galen thought that blood was formed and carried to the tissues, then consumed, Harvey realised this was wrong.

Harvey worked out that there was to much blood comming out of the heart for it to be continually formed and consumed, so it must be circulating.

He also identified the difference between arterys and veins- he noticed blood changes colour as it passes through the lungs.

His work was very important and a turning point in anatomy, it didn't radically change surgery- bleeding continued to be performed and blood transfusions were not successful until blood groups were discovered in 1900.

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Andreas Vesalius

Vesalius wrote anatomy books with accurate drawings.

He was allowed to performdissections but he wasn't allowed to boil bodies to get a skeleton.

Pinched bodies from a gibbet.

He wrote books based on his obervations, he wrote, 'The Fabric of the Human Body', in 1543.

He noticed Galen had made mistakes, he noted there were no holes in the hearts and the blood went from one side of the heart to the other via the lungs.

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Edward Jenner

He invented a vaccine for small pox.

He noticed that milkmaids who caught cow pox didn't catch small pox.

In 1796 he tested his theory, he injected a boy with pus from cow pox, the boy go ill then survived. After he recovered Jenner injected the boy with small pox, the boy wasn't affected.

His vaccination made him famous and was awarded thousands of pounds.

Vaccinations were made free to infants in 1840 and compulsory in 1853.

Some opposed vaccinations- some doctors saw it as a threat to their livelihood, many people were worried about giving themseleves a disease from cows.

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Edwin Chadwick

In 1842 Chadwick published a Report on the sanitary conditions of the labouring population of Greate Britain'.

His revolutionary idea was that improving public health and having a healither workfroce would savemoney rather than cost money .

The report described statistics on sickness and mortality, this socked some of the privilaged classes. People campaigned for improvments in 1844 the Health of towns assosiation was introduced.

First public health act was introduced in 1848 but said concils could improve conditions, so it wasnt very effective.

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John Snow

Invented the Cloroform inhaler to make administering the anaesthetic safer.

He linked Cholera to contaminated water.

Connection was discovered in 1854

He studies the outbreak of Cholera in the Broad Street area of London.

He noticed that the victims were all using the same water pump- sso he had the handle removed, the outbreak ended.

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Florence Nightingale

Became a nurse in 1849 dispite opposition from her family- she brouhgt a new sense of disipline and professionalism to a job that had a very bad reputation at the time.

When the Crimean war broke out in 1854- horror stories emerged from the Barrack hospital in Scutari where British wounded were being treated.

She went to Scutari to sort out the nursing care at the hospital- she was opposed by the militay.

The death rate at the hospital was 42% after two years it had fallen to 2%- this was partly due to the improvments made to ward hygiene.

On her return to Britian she set up the Nightingale school of nursing- discipline and attention to detail were important , the 1949 registration of nurses act made training for nurses compulsory.

Ony in1960 we men admitted to the royal collage of nursing.

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Elizabeth Garret Anderson

She was one of the first British women to openly qualify as a doctor she had to train privately.

She forced the Society of Apothecaries to accept her in 1865, at first they refused, s her father tokk them to court. Afterward the societ changes their rules to stop other women doing the same. She was awarded a medical degree by the universit of Paris in 1870.

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Alexander Flemming

In 1928 he cleaned was about to clean up some petri dishes that had been left while he was on holiday.

By chance a fungal spore has landed on one of the dishes, what caught flemmings eye was that it had stopped some mould from growing.

Flemming wrote a report on his findings but was unable to take his work further.

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Florey and Chain

They tried to work out a way to mass produce Penecillin between 1938 and 1940.

 They developed a freeze drying technique which was an important part of the purifiaction process.

On their first clinical trial they grew the Penecillin in every container in the lab but couldn't grow enough, the patient who was starting to recover then died.

Florey new the Penecillin could be used for treating soldiers, British chemical firms were to busy making explosives so they had to turn to American companies - who were no keen to help until America joined the war in 1941. Mass production was achived in 1944 just in time for the D Day landings.

Fleming, Florey and Chain were awerded a Nobel prize in 1945.

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Watson and Crick


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He left an enduring legacy despite many mistakes.

He belived in the four humours.

He was decived by using animals as the church wouldn't allow him to disect humans.

He described the liver as the wrong shape, he discovered a network of blood vessels in animals on the undersurface of the brain, he wrongly though this would be the same in humans.

He let him ambition get the better of hime by only recording his successful cases, and frequently let himself see what he want'ed to see. He belived blood started life in the liver and picked up spirits along the way he also thought the nervous system was part of this.

He had great influence on medecine many of his books were copied so they survived.

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