Versailles May 28th 1919
USA (wilson) (was not hit half as badly by the war as BR and FR so did not feel as bitter)
- peace + league of nations founded
- did not want to blame anyone + self determinism not established
- £6.6 but cancelled later; military decreased but not enough; territory lost including Alsace Lorraine but not enough; Germany not weakened enough
- Happy with support of league of nations
Britain (Lloyd George)
- War guilt; no german colonies; no mechanical navy equipment (arms race caused WW1)
- Could still have trade links with Germany
- Kaiser still alive (public not happy); liberals and daily mail said too harsh, conservatices and the times said not harsh enough
Germany TRAWL territoryreparationsarmywarguiltleague
- 13.5% territory lost including colonies and alsace lorraine; 10% industry, 15% agricultural land +nearly 50% iron ore
- £6.6 billion
- 100000 men max and no mechanised infantry
- War guilt - lost pride
- League of Nations set up and Germany not invited
League of Nations SIDE stopwarsimprovelivingandwor
Vilna 1920 - Poland vs Lithuania - Poland refused to withdraw and Fr and Br didn't push them by sending military as they were a potential ally against G and USSR
Upper Silesia 1921 - plebisite poland vs germany; rural voted poland, industrial germany, was split according to votes and nobody argued
Aaland Islands 1921 - Sweden vs Finland - appealed to league - league said F - Sw excepted decision and war was avoided
Corfu - Italy vs Greece - Mussolini ignored League's orders to pull out and make Greece pay money to Italy
Geneva protocol 1924 - meant to strengthen leagues power - conservatives got in and refused to sign it
Bulgaria 1925 - Greece invaded but obeyed Leagues orders to pull out and pay compensation - however this showed the league was biased -> corfu
League Stop wars cont...
Kellogg-Briande pact 1928 - signed but ignored by 65 countries
Manchuria 1931 - Lytton report took a year to write and condemned Japan AND manchurians - neither side happy - after long delay no action taken
Abyssinia 1935 - Sanctions imposed but Suez canal not closed, Br and Fr have secret agreement to let Italy have Abyssinia as they needed their alliance
Improve living and working conditions
Refugee camps set up in Turkey 1922
half a million WW1 prisoners of war brought home by league
200,000 slaves freed in Africa and Burma
Big drug companies closed down
improve living and working conditions cont...
Work to prevent leprosy and malaria (disease is a big thing -> article 23 of covanent)
Economic experts sent to help Austria and Hungary
Lead removed from paint
ILO failed to persuade countries to adopt a 48 hour working week
Existing treaties - Rapallo (1922) and Washington (1921) agreement
talks failed in 32 (G wants as many weapons as everyone else) and 33 (Fr refuses to disarm to G's level)
1935 Luffewaffe made public and conscription introduced in G; maginot line being built in Fr
Enforcing Versailles and other league bits and bob
Poland 1920 takes land from Russia (against V) and ignores League's orders to stop
France invades Ruhr to make Germans pay up reparations (23) (reps decided in 21)
Troups sent into Rhineland 1936 - no action taken to stop him - HG Wells says it's only like Br invading Portsmouth so nothing coud fairly have been done about it, but troups had orders to retreat if faced with any opposition.
Assembly once a year, Council 4 or 5 times (br, fr, J, I andsomeothers), agencies and committees. Secretariat kept records of league meetings and prepared reports for different agencies branching from the League - was split into sections eg health, disarmament and economic matters.
Powers: covanent, condemnation, arbitration (offering to decide who is in the right and what should be done), sanctions, military force but only in extreme cases and if member countries were willing to use own armies.
Key Countries missing, depression, no army
20s Weimar Germany
Proportional representation = weak coalition governments
article 48 - president can effectively become dictator in state of emergency
Early 1919 - Spartacist uprising - communists took power in Bavaria but easily defeated by Friekorps, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht tortured and murdered, innocent people including 30 sailors also killed, over 1000 people shot in 3 days - made government appear ruthless and ignoring the people and their feelings.
March 1920 - Kapp Putsch - friekorps rebelled, army refused to fight against them, however didn't succeed due to workers general strike preventing transport
Hyperinflation 1932 Dawes Plan 1924 Young Plan 1929 "dancing on a volcanoe"
T of V being fulfilled to gain global trust but also gained hatred from Germans
1923 peaceful removal of Fr 25 Locarno Pact 26 joins League + treaty of Berlin
Marlene Detricht, Cabaret, einstein, bauhaus architechtural movement
Munich Putsch 1923 appears failure for Nazis but gains them publicity and causes them to rethink tactics. Mein Kampf written while in prison.
1919-23 - army "stabbed in the back" by "november criminals"; there was only a ceasefire - Germany weren't invaded therefore have not lost the war; no strong leader to control extreme parties; army not controlled by Government
Hitler's rise to power
October 23 mucich putsch mein kampf etc "hold our noses and enter the Reichstag" but Nazis remained a fringe party, still only had 2% of seats 1928 (communists 8%)
1932 - 40% of industrial workers unemployed - industrialists terrified of loosing riches through communist regime so supported Nazis and gave them lots of money
Intimidation - SA (Rohm, much bigger than army); ** (Himmler - v. well trained aryans)
Propaganda - Goebbles, "work, freedom, bread" "our last hope" planes for speeches all over Germany "the Fuhrer over Germany" Radio=even wider audience
Hitler's oratory skills
NSDAP offered: lebensraum, scapegoat (anti-semitism), rejection of versailles+herensvolk and aryan race = restoration of German pride, uniting all German speakers, 25pt programme.
Backstairs Intrigue - Hindenburg, Papan, Schliecher, "little Bohemian Corporal", Nazi seats were going down as depression faded (238 july 32, 196 november 32)
28th Feb 1933 Reichstag fire, Communists blamed (Van Der Lubbe) - enables H to declare state of emergency (enabling act article 48). However, Himmler later overheard boasting that he began the fire.
August 2nd 1934 Hindenburg dies August 19th 1934 Hitler declares himself Fuhrer.
Concordat with pope, reich church (bishop muller, distorted nazi christianity), German faith movement alternative, opposition dealt with violently (Martin Niemoller, protestant, sent to concentration camp; Cardinal Innitzer's church was attacked by **, with one cleric thrown out of a window breaking both of his legs! Cardinal Galen also strongly opposed Nazis)
** (Himmler), SA (Rohm), Gustapo (Eichmann), ORPO (arresting and sending to camps), informers (handed in friends and neighbours to stay on right side of Nazis)
June 30th 1934 Night of the Long Knives
Hitler keeping control cont...
Ministry of enlightenment "The Eternal Jew", "The Stars are Shining", "Triumph of the Will" Goebbles, Olympics 36
"Law for protection of people and state" (outlawed freedom of speech, association +press)
Regime gradually made stricter as opposed to suddenly
Benefitting workers - Beauty of Labour (improved conditions eg provided hot lunches), Strength through Joy (holidays - Prora holiday resort on Rugen Island - 10,000 room hotel), German Labour Front (lots of jobs created eg autobahns). Volkswagen scheme introduced (although money spent on rearming instead)
Controlling youth - Hitler Youth (25% joined voluntarily), German League of Maidens, Rewritten text books promoting nazi ideals, indoctrination of anti-semitism etc. Other youth groups illegal but still happened - Eidelweiss pirates (12 publicly hung Cologne 1944); White Rose Movement (Munich Uni, decapitated Feb '43 but honoured for peaceful anti-war effort); swing movement etc
Nazis and women
kinder kuche kirche
"though a woman's weapon is a wooden spoon, it is just as important as other weapons" Gertrud Scholz-Klink, head of Nazi women's bureau
8 children = gold cross/ honour cross + priviledged seat at Nazi meetings
League of Nations reinforced Nazi ideals, focussing on good physical health and housekeeping skills. Posters, radio broadcasts and newsreels promoted and celebrated motherhood and home building.
Discrimination against women applicants for jobs was encouraged - proved a problem in late 30s due to lack of unemployed men.
Nazis and the disabled
Eugenics - cleansing the gene pool
Sterilisation law neutered 32000 mentally ill people
Heinrich Gross - Spiegelgrund hospital - 600 children killed with cyanide - brains, fingers and eyeballs preserved
T4 Euthanasia programme - mercy killing - "racial hygene"
July 33 "Law for prevention of hereditarily diseased offspring" neuters disabled people as well as gypsies, homosexuals and alcoholics.
Nazis and Jews and other untermenschen Intentional
1993 Dachau opens - Himmler incharge - 20% of inmates died within it's walls
April 1933 boycott of Jewish shops
sept 13th 1935 Nuremburg laws passed
1937 Gypsies declared criminals
1938 Identity cards, Jewish doctors only allowed to treat Jews, adding Sarah/Israel to name, passports marked with J, Jewish children banned from schools
1939 Star of David, German authorities sieze Jewish property, Jews can't work with Gs
20th May 1940 Auschwitz opens
1941 Wannsee conference - main decisions already made so just reps from main depts.
January 1942 gassing begins
Causes of WW2
June 1935 - anglo-german naval agreement
March 1936 - Reoccupation of the Rhineland
October 1936 - Rome-Berlin Axis
1937 - Anti Commitern pact
March 1938 - Anschluss with Austria (99.7% voted to unite)
29th Sept 1938 - Munich agreement (time for rearming, but USSR and Czech not included)
March 1939 - Sudetenland Annexed
23rd August 1939 - Nazi-Soviet Pact (USSR enter league 1934 for security against German threat, tried but failed to ally with Fr+Br despite anger at appeasement 1939 (chaimberlain reluctant due to communism + couldnt convince stalin of polish security. So summer 1939 Ribbentrop (Nazi foreign minister) started visits to USSR. Pact signed agreeing to no aggression between G+USSR and secretly dividing Poland. Hitler avoided war on 2 fronts, Stalin postponed war for his country, both countries got land.)
1st Sept 1940 - invasion of Poland 3rd Sept 1940 - war declared
- Hitler's foreign policy
- Br + Fr appeasement (also lost Italy as an ally?)
- Flawed treaty of Versailles
- Failure of League of Nations
- Nazi-Soviet pact
- Invasion of Poland