Health Promotion.

Health Promotion for OCR psychology. health and clinical psychology. 

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Media Campaigns; Farquhar et al.

How media campaigns can influence people into leading a more healthy lifestyle. The study by Farquhar et al looked at this. 

Aim; Looked at 3 similar towns in the USA. Campaign used tv, radio, newspapers, and mailshots. To see if the media campaigns helped to increase awareness of heart disease. 

Method and Procedure; Field exp. Independent measures desgin. (p's - people who lived in the towns). Researchers interviewed several hundred people in the 3 towns. Interviewed before campaign began, one year after, and again after 2 years when it had finished. Interviews included questions on health behaviours, in relation to corony heart disease, risks of heart disease, and physical measures such as blood pressures and cholesterol levels. 

Results; Control town (no campagin) increase in risks of heart disease, campaigns showed a moderate descrease. Campaign produced awareness and there was little change in health behaviours. The exception to this was the one town who had hreceived counselling as well as the campaign. SHOWED SIGNIFICANT DECREASE IN RISKS OF HEART DISEASE. 

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Media Campaigns; Farquhar et al.

Evaluation; Validity could be low as the interviews may have produced demand characteristics. Ecological validity is high as the campaigns would appear in their everyday life so it would not be something unusual. 

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Legislation; Dannenberg.

Legislation can be put in place to help give people  healthy lifestyles, however it is difficult to pass laws and to control this. The study by Dannenberg looks at bike helmet legislation. 

Aim; To review the impact of the passing of a law requiring cycle helmet wearing of children. 

Method; Quasi exp. Independent measures design. Laws passed in Howard County, Maryland USA. children under 16 riding bikes on roads and paths had to wear an approved safety helmet. (P's - 47 schools in Howard County. X2 control groups, one montgomery, one Baltimore.children were 9-10. 12-13. 14-15.) 

Results; In Howard County where there was an educational campaign and legislation increase from 11.4% - 37.5%. Baltimore there was nothing least usage increase from 6% - 11%. Montgomery there was an educational campagin slight increase from 8% - 12%. 

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Legislation; Dannenberg.

Evaluation; Effectiveness - awareness vs behaviour changes. dont know if the effectiveness of this legislation wears off. it would have to be tested again. The validity of the experiement is also high as a law was passed so everyone had to do as they were told therefore what you think is being measured is being measured. 

Similarly with ecoogical validity it is peoples everyday life therefore it is high and will not affect the validity apart from increasing it. 

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Fear Arousal; Janis & Feshback.

Fear arousal can often 'scare' people into taking up a new health behaviour and leading a better and more healthy lifestyle. 

Aim; To investigate the consequences on emotions and behaviour of fear appeals in communications. 

Method; lab experiment with questionnaires being used on emotional reactions and changes in dental practices. INDEPENDENT MEASURES DESIGN. 4 groups used. (p's - used were 9th grade at a USA high school.)

 Four groups - strong fear arousal, moderate fear arousal, minimal fear arousal, lecture on eye functions for control. A questionnaire given week before lecture. there was a questionnaire afterwards for emotional reactions then a week later as a follow up questionnaire about long term effects from the lecture. 

Results; Strong fear - 8% increase in dental hygeine. Moderate fear - 22% increase. minimal fear - 36% increase. human eye - 0%. Conclusion; low fear arousal is the best for promoting a change in a healthy lifestyle. 

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Fear Arousal; Janis & Feshback.

Evaluation; lower validity as self report method was used. there may be cases of social desirability. 

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