Health and Social

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  • Created by: megan
  • Created on: 25-01-13 10:52

Environmental Health Officer

Issues advice and guidance issues an improvement notice can enter a premises at any time,

generally within their working hours has the power to close the premises down and can also fine a person a person who is emploued to go to any food premises which prepares,serves and cooks the food.

they also ensure that they are following safe, hygienic and healthy practices checks the fridge temperature 3 times a day below 8 degrees.

freezer between -18 degrees and -22 degrees checks that the equipment is being used properly and that it is clean and hygienic so there are no infections

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cleaning stages

1) Remove food and particles. Mop up any spillages with a damp cloth.

2) Use detergent and hot water to remove grease, soiling and stains

3) Rinse the surface with hot water- remove any detergents

4) Sanitizer and hot water- leave to remove bacteria

5) Rinse with very hot water and let the surface dry naturally

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chopping boards

Different colour chopping boards are used to prevent cross contamination


Green- fruit and vegetables

Yellow- cooked meats

Red- Raw Meats

Blue- Raw Fish

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aim of first aid

  1. First aider safety is a priority
  2. Preserve the life of the casualty
  3. Prevent further harm occurring to the casualty
  4. Promote or support the process of recovery
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1.      assess the situation quickly

2.      protect themselves

3.      identify…injury/nature of illness

4.      give each casualty early and appropriate treatment, e.g. who first

5.      arrange to go to hospital, doctor or home

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responsibilities cont.

6.      remain until further care is available

7.      report observations

8.      prevent cross infection

9.      do not lift or move an immobile casualty unless the casualty is in danger of experiencing further harm

10. remain to reassure/comfort until help arrives

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Casualty management – 4 steps

1.      Are there bystanders there that could help?

2.      Is there a first aid kit available

3.      Is specialist help needed e.g. an ambulance?

4.      Is anyone in a life threatening condition?


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What must you do?

Provide comfort and assurance

Request help from emergency services if the person is unable to move themselves

Steady and support the fractured limb to prevent further movement that might cause tissues, ligament or nerve damage

If there is bleeding, press a clean dressing on and around the wound to stop blood loss

If it is a broken leg pad between the legs at the knees and ankles, then bandage the good leg to the bad leg at the knees and ankles forming a splint and immobilising the leg.

If the person has a broken arm, improvise a sling to keep the injured arm close to the body and supported.

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DRABC explained


DANGER: check the area for dangers to both yourself and the victim

RESPONSE: call to the victim from a safe distance to see if conscious, and then approach carefully always checking for unforeseen dangers. Touch the victim on the shoulder and shake slightly always talking to them looking for a response (making sure you have checked for anything dangerous such as electric cable caught underneath)

AIRWAY: check to see if the airway is clear. If not remove any obstructions that can be indentified.

BREATHING: to see if the victim is breathing, hold a mirror to the nose or the mouth area (if you have one) or place your check in the same area to feel any breath that may be there.

CIRCULATION: try to locate a pulse. There are various points where the pulse can be

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body functions


Cardiac system

Respiratory system


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If the victim is in a safe place, is breathing and has a pulse, check body for any other injuries such as fractures, dislocations, cuts etc. if they have a suspected injury leave them as they are but continue to monitor the vital signs. If no injuries put into recovery position. Then send for, call for, or go yourself for help – call ambulance!

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not breathing

If the victim is not breathing and has no pulse send for help and start CPR

If you are on your own you must get help first then start CPR. This will be hard work but you must keep it going until help arrives.

If you have others with you send them for help with specific instructions of location, and symptoms and start CPR yourself. When they return ask them to help you with the CPR and continue until help arrives

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  1. state the service you require
  2. give your name and the number of the phone you are calling from
  3. location of the accident or incident
  4. number of casualties
  5. what happened – signs symptom etc
  6. Conscious or not?
  7. Any hazards – gas, toxic substances etc
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Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation

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Inclined to bold or confident assertion; aggressively self-assured.

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Burns and scalds


Burn = tissue damaged by dry heat

Scald = tissue damaged by wet heat – such as very hot water or chemicals

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They damage the blood vessels that lie below the skin as well as the skin itself.

Plasma which is contained within the blood is released and forms a bubble under the skin.

A large burn or scald over a big surface area can result in significant blood and plasma loss and the victim would go into shock.

Very young and very old people are susceptible to burns and scalds. A simple thing like bath water being too hot can have devastating effects.


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1st degree burns:

Mildest type

Pain and redness


Carpet burn

Straighter and ovens


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2nd degree burns: Blisters pain and redness For minor burns, hold the affected area under cold water for at least 10 minutes or until the pain subsides. Remove jewellery etc. and cover the burn If a minor burn is larger than a postage stamp it requires medical attention. All deep burns of any size require urgent hospital treatment. Wounds and bleeding

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A wound is a break in the surface if the skin

Cuts, grazes, puncture wounds and lacerations to the body or the opening of surgical wounds

They can appear as a trickle of blood to more significant and dangerous bleeding where the flow is fast or spurting

Fast flowing or spurting blood could be due to a severed artery and the blood is under immense pressure from the heart. This type needs to be treated quickly.

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Could cause:

Faint and dizzy

Look pale in the face and around the lips

Develop cold and clammy skin

Start to breathe more quickly but in a shallow way, perhaps gasping for air

Have a weak, rapid pulse

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Internal bleeding

They will display the same symptoms but there will be no sign of blood at all.

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How to treat bleeding:

  • Wash and dry your own hands.
  • Cover any cuts on your own hands and put on disposable gloves.
  • Clean the cut, if dirty, under running water. Pat dry with a sterile dressing or clean lint-free material. If possible, raise affected area above the heart.
  • Cover the cut temporarily while you clean the surrounding skin with soap and water and pat the surrounding skin dry. Cover the cut completely with a sterile dressing or plaster.
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Severe bleeding:

  • Apply direct pressure to the wound with a pad (e.g. a clean cloth) or fingers until a sterile dressing is available.
  • Raise and support the injured limb. Take particular care if you suspect a bone has been broken.
  • Lay the casualty down to treat for shock.
  • Bandage the pad or dressing firmly to control bleeding, but not so tightly that it stops the circulation to fingers or toes. If bleeding seeps through first bandage, cover with a second bandage. If bleeding continues to seep through bandage, remove it and reapply.
  • Dial 999 for an ambulance.
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Remember: protect yourself from infection by wearing disposable gloves and covering any wounds on your hands.

If blood comes through the dressing do not remove it – bandage another over the original.

If blood seeps through both dressings, remove them both and replace with a fresh dressing, applying pressure over the site of bleeding.


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Fractures: Older adults’ bones are most prone to this as they are more frail and brittle.

Signs and symptoms: Swelling


Difficulty moving the body part

Obvious ‘snapping’ sound heard if nearby

The bone/s protruding through the skin

Bleeding where skin torn

Limb becomes floppy, lacks power or is held at a strange angle

Person pale and clammy – may be in shock

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Types of fracture:


A fracture in which the break is across the bone, at a right angle to the long axis of the bone


the bone has broken at an angle not a right angle


Instead of a straight break as in oblique fracture that is only in one plane, the break in this case traverses both the planes 


Multiple breaks in the bone, they are visible as different fragments

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Treatment for shock Signs:

Looking drained

Cold, clammy skin

Fast, shallow breathing

Rapid weak pulse



In extreme cases, unconsciousness

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Lay the person down; if their injuries allow it; raise and support their legs

Use a coat or blanket to keep them warm BUT not smothered

Do not give them any food or drink

Check their breathing and pulse frequently

If their breathing stops start resuscitation – CPR

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