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Social psychological theories such as deindividuation dont tell whole story about origin aggression groups--> Alternative expla. more appropriate that suggests aggressi. displays..adaptive --> I.e. enhance survival of group & prmote passing on of genetic material

Aggressi. in sporting events may b linked to xenophobia (hatred of strangers) (WILSON)--> Found in all species--> Natural selection favoured those who are altruistic to members of their own group but intolerant of outsiders --> exaggeration of neg. stereotypes .. over-perception of threat less costly than under-perception --> Leads to greater protection of genetic material

Evidence of xenopphobic tendencies found in Italian football crowds: 2 Italian teams Livorno (left wing politics) & Lazio (right wing politics) footbal match --> One Lazio player did Fascist salute .. reinforcing right wing in group was provocative to Livorno supporters

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Research SUPPORT for Xenophobia as an adaptive explan. for group displays--> Researchers found amongst Hungarian football crowds that racist conduct led to increased spectator violence --> Gypsies, Jews, and Russians most common targets --> Field study= natural setting high external validity.. H/W some methodological issues --> Less control over variables studied & correlational data does not est. cause and effect --> Susceptible to researcher bias .. becomes to over-involved in subject area & reflects to much personal interpretation onto findings --> could overcome this another researcher to analyse & interpret results

REAL WORLD APPL. of research xenophobia --> applied to Celtic & Rangers fans..historically had sectarian bigotry --> both effort strengthen group cohesion with religious lines to reduce crowd violence

Adaptive nature of group display may b expla. in terms of protecting territory --> Found in many species.. more aggressive when home territory is being protected --> E.g. Samoan chant before rugby match intended to intimidate opponents --> Aggressive displays adaptive .. origin from of vital resources (food/water/offspring) = increase group survival --> H/W evidence for this argument unclear --> Crowd support rated as import. ...

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group display III

..home team advantge... not clear whether aggress. display (Samoan chant) primarily encourages home team or just intimadatory gesture aimed at opponents in general --> ALSO other research analysed.. team various matches with/without supporters present .. influence of supporters minimal


Warfare such a costly activity difficult to understand why adaptive --> H/W some ideas have been put forward:

1. Sexual selection - females attracted to males do well in battle & less attracted to those no sign of bravery - brave males access to greater choice & quantity of partners --> CHAGNON male warriors traditionally have more offspring & sexual partners = direct reprod. benefit

2. High status - aggressive displays led to greater respect from peers & stronger ******* with other males --> High status & respect = high rewards --> more sexual partners .. greater reprod. benefit

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group IV

SUPPORTING evidence: young male gang members many sexual partners than ordinary males --> Military men greater sex appeal but only having been observed bravery during combat

CONTRADICTING evidence: explana. of displays aggressi. based on mating success, status & commitment fail to explain levels of cruelty in HUMAN wars but not non-human species--> Why do humans torture & humiliate their opponent when they have already been defeated? ..argued that DEINDIVIDUATION might play part in explainin. this aspect of aggress. behaviour

These explana. apply mostly males - bio. diff. b/twn males & females attitudes & expression of aggression need to be considered (BETA BIAS) --> Research only focused on how men behave little focus on female behaviour --> H/W in most societies less accepteble for women to war since women less to gain from near-death experiences & MORE to lose than men --> Whilst they might still support evolutionary evidence for group displays, underlying cause might be diff. in hormone levels which needs to b investigated

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group V

H/W evolutionary explana. hard to test--> Conclusions drawn based on supposed adaptive advantage --> B/C we reflecting on life many millions of years ago .. impossible to test ideas empirically.

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