Social psychological theories such as deindividuation dont tell whole story about origin aggression groups--> Alternative expla. more appropriate that suggests aggressi. displays..adaptive --> I.e. enhance survival of group & prmote passing on of genetic material
Aggressi. in sporting events may b linked to xenophobia (hatred of strangers) (WILSON)--> Found in all species--> Natural selection favoured those who are altruistic to members of their own group but intolerant of outsiders --> exaggeration of neg. stereotypes .. over-perception of threat less costly than under-perception --> Leads to greater protection of genetic material
Evidence of xenopphobic tendencies found in Italian football crowds: 2 Italian teams Livorno (left wing politics) & Lazio (right wing politics) footbal match --> One Lazio player did Fascist salute .. reinforcing right wing in group was provocative to Livorno supporters
GROUP DISPLAY II
Research SUPPORT for Xenophobia as an adaptive explan. for group displays--> Researchers found amongst Hungarian football crowds that racist conduct led to increased spectator violence --> Gypsies, Jews, and Russians most common targets --> Field study= natural setting high external validity.. H/W some methodological issues --> Less control over variables studied & correlational data does not est. cause and effect --> Susceptible to researcher bias .. becomes to over-involved in subject area & reflects to much personal interpretation onto findings --> could overcome this another researcher to analyse & interpret results
REAL WORLD APPL. of research xenophobia --> applied to Celtic & Rangers fans..historically had sectarian bigotry --> both effort strengthen group cohesion with religious lines to reduce crowd violence
Adaptive nature of group display may b expla. in terms of protecting territory --> Found in many species.. more aggressive when home territory is being protected --> E.g. Samoan chant before rugby match intended to intimidate opponents --> Aggressive displays adaptive .. origin from ancestors..protection of vital resources (food/water/offspring) = increase group survival --> H/W evidence for this argument unclear --> Crowd support rated as import. ...
group display III
..home team advantge... not clear whether aggress. display (Samoan chant) primarily encourages home team or just intimadatory gesture aimed at opponents in general --> ALSO other research analysed.. team various matches with/without supporters present .. influence of supporters minimal
Warfare such a costly activity difficult to understand why adaptive --> H/W some ideas have been put forward:
1. Sexual selection - females attracted to males do well in battle & less attracted to those no sign of bravery - brave males access to greater choice & quantity of partners --> CHAGNON male warriors traditionally have more offspring & sexual partners = direct reprod. benefit
2. High status - aggressive displays led to greater respect from peers & stronger ******* with other males --> High status & respect = high rewards --> more sexual partners .. greater reprod. benefit
SUPPORTING evidence: young male gang members many sexual partners than ordinary males --> Military men greater sex appeal but only having been observed bravery during combat
CONTRADICTING evidence: explana. of displays aggressi. based on mating success, status & commitment fail to explain levels of cruelty in HUMAN wars but not non-human species--> Why do humans torture & humiliate their opponent when they have already been defeated? ..argued that DEINDIVIDUATION might play part in explainin. this aspect of aggress. behaviour
These explana. apply mostly males - bio. diff. b/twn males & females attitudes & expression of aggression need to be considered (BETA BIAS) --> Research only focused on how men behave little focus on female behaviour --> H/W in most societies less accepteble for women to war since women less to gain from near-death experiences & MORE to lose than men --> Whilst they might still support evolutionary evidence for group displays, underlying cause might be diff. in hormone levels which needs to b investigated
H/W evolutionary explana. hard to test--> Conclusions drawn based on supposed adaptive advantage --> B/C we reflecting on life many millions of years ago .. impossible to test ideas empirically.