The Weimar Republic
After WW1 Kaiser fled Germany.
Democratic government introduced.
Revolt in Berlin by Sparticists: communist group.
Positives of Weimar Republic
Bill of Rights: every German citizen freedom of speech, religion and equality.
All men and women over 20 allowed to vote.
Elected President and Elected Reichstag.
Negatives of Weimar Republic
Proportional representations: Germans vote for a party.
Each party allocated seats for the number of votes they got.
Result - lots of tiny parties, no party getting the majority.
No government get laws passed, they all wanted differnent things.
Article 48: In emergency only
President pass laws without the Reichstag.
Problem - did not say what problem was, Hitler used to take power legally.
Key Problems 1919 - 1923
Weimar Republic created time of chaos and confusion after WW1.
Treaty of Versailles unfair. Did not like government for signing it.
Weimar government faced violent uprisings from various groups.
1918 - 1919: People were starving,
Hate government for signing Armistice, November 1918,
Freikorps refused to stop, formed private armies.
Violence and Unrest
March 1920, Kapp Putsch, want the Kaiser back.
Nationalist terror groups assassinated 356 government politicians.
Many people in Germany were communists.
Main Crisis- 1923
Germans failed to pay reparations on time this triggered...
- French invade the Ruhr.
- General strike.
- Communists rebel.
- Munich Putsch (Nazi attempt a rebellion in Munich.)
Violence in the Weimar Republic.
January 1919 - 50,000 Spartacists rebel in Berlin.
Led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknecht.
March 1920 - Right-wing nationalist Dr Wolfgang Kapp took over Berlin.
Army refuse to attack him.
Defeated when workers went on strike.
Germany missed reparaptions payment -> French invade the Ruhr -> German workers went on strike -> Government print off more money -> Hyperinflation.
Sudden flood of money, on top of general strike, meant no goods being produced, so more money chasing fewer goods, combined with weak economy (ruined by war), resulted in Hyperinflation.
A loaf of bread cost 250 marks in January 1923, risen to 200,000 million marks in November 1923.
Germany's currency = WORTHLESS!
Good and Bad points on Hyperinflation
Some people made fortunes: People on wages were safe because they renegotiated their wages every day.
Pensioners on fixed incomed and people with savings were the most badly hit.
1919 - Adolf Hitler joined small right-winged group, German Workers' Party.
He took over, became leader and changed the name to National Socialists (Nazis).
The Nazi Ideology
Lebensraum - German nation to expand
A strong Germany - Treaty of Versailles abolished
All German-speaking people in one country.
Fuhrer - Single leader with complete power
Social Darwinism - Aryan race good
Germany was in danger - from Communists and Jews had
to be destroyed.