Tourism and it's development
- The worlds fasting growing industry worth over £400 million per year.
- The short term movement of people to places outside where they normally live and work. the travel for pleaseure and also for buisness.
- 200 years ago only the rich would travel with their servents they visited catherdrals, art galleries and they stayed in the best hotels.
- 1840's Railways are growing therefore the middle class begin to travel to Bath and Harrogate to drink their mineral water in the spas. Eventually they began to travel to seaside towns and stay in hotels.
- Early 1900's People were given paid holidays and the working class went away on bank holidays as the train tickets got cheaper. They stayed in bording houses.
- Nowadays. Family sizes are getting smaller so family holidays are cheaper. Flights became cheaper and their were package holidays. People earned more money and had more days off in a year.
Reasons leading to a tourism increase
- People have more leisure time - People travel after they have retired. People have paid holidays therefor they are willing to go away.
- More Money - People generally have higher wages. People have cars. Package holidays mare travelling cheaper.
- Better health - Life expectancy has increased. They 'grey market' spending 'grey pounds'
- Cheaper travel costs and improved tansport - Budget airlines. the development of Motorways, Channel tunnel and the eurostar. Airports are larger.
- The internet - People can research any destinations and book wuickly and easily. Adverts. Tripadvisor. you can compare deals and offers.
- Advertising - TV, Social media, Online, Celebs and direct adverts eg. via email.
- Package Holidays - Everything is included meaning it is less hastle for buyers. cheaper for companies and travellers making them more appealing.
- A city - A large built up area
- A mountain - An area of highland
- A coast - Where the land meets the sea.
Human attractions are caused by people and can include culture or heritage buildings and specific built attractions like theme parks.
Physical attractions are natural features of a place. The climate or weather and scenary and landscape.
Bondi Beach is in Sydney. Bondi Beach is a 1km long south facing beach which can attract more tha 40, 000 people on a sumers weekend. It is the closest beach from Sydney city centre.
Where is it?
- It is located on the east coast of Australia in a suburb of Sydney. It is easily accesed bu local public transport.
Things to do
- Surfing or the Beach's coastal walk
- Sydney opera house
- Taronga zoo
- Sydney harbour bridge
- Sea life sydney
- Queen victoria building
- Shelly beach
- Sydney tower
Where is it?
- London is in the Southe east of England. The UK's largest city. The population of London is 8.308 million(2013)
Things to do
- The london eye
- Buckingham palace
- Tate modern
- Madame Tussauds
- Big Ben
- London zoo
- The west end
- Ronnie scotts
Who would visit - couples, families, students, tourists and buisness people.
Where is it?
- To the east of central UK. North west of Wales just away from the coast. The national park covers823 square miles.
Things to do
- Climb snowdon
- Snowdon mounain railway
- Sygun copper Mine
- Swallow falls
- Harlech castle
Who would visit - walkers, adventure seekers, people who enjoy scenary or British towns.
Snowdon - over 400.000 people go up each year. it is 1,085m tall, it is a natural 'honeypot site', It is the wettest national park.
Where does the UK travel to?
As the countries get further away less Brits travel there possibly as there is further to go which costs time and money. People also like to go to nearby hot countries.
Tourism and the economy
The top 3 countries that make the most money out of tourism are all tropical islands. Countries in Europe still make alot of money from tourism but not the highest. Colder countries dont make as much money.
The uk economy earns over £100 billion from tourism every year. Resturants and hotels make up 20% of that figure. Approx. 30 million overseas visitors visit the UK every year.Tourism makes up 14% of the UK GDP.
Why does tourism go up and down?
External factors - Things that effect numbers but are outside of our control
- Natural Disasters
- The state of the global economy (eg. global reccesion)
- Exchange rates
- Terrorist attacks - eg. the 7/7 bombings or the Narobi mall shootings caused the tourist numbers to drop becaus eof the risks and dangers.
- A weak pound means people can afform more in the UK.
Life cycle model diagram.
Life cycle model explained
Exploration - one attraction (eg. beach) and Few facilities.
Involvements - Potential reconginsed, More visitors and some facilities.
Development - Large companies, Package holidays, Rapid rise in visitors and more jobs.
Consolidation - Some run-down hotels, stable numbers, tourism is important to the economy and there may be conflict between th owners and residents.
Stagnation - Unfashionable, Failing buisnesses, people will begin to consider alternaove destinations.
Rejuvination - Modernise and improve and possibly new groups.
Decline - Buissnesses close and unemployment.
Development of the Peak District
1) A small number of visitors in the 1600's due to a book calles the severn wonders of the peak.
2) In victorian times numbers began to rise. in 1860 railways had developed providing better access. The richer people enjoyed Tours and visiting Spa toens such as Buxton.
3) Later, victorian working class people went their for the calmness as the surrounding cities eg. manchester, sheffield and liverpool ere very busy and loud.
4) In 1951 it was announced the UK's first national park allowing lots of open land. Pennine way was opened in 1965 to encourage walkers to the national park.
5) Car ownership and better roads made it more accesible Snake pass (A57) was built which traveled between cities and through the peak district.The Cat and Fidlle road joins derbyshire to cheshire and is popular with motor cyclists.
6) The peak distric remains popular as it is so close to many major cities and has easy road and rail access. about 10 million people visit per year. Tourism there provides ove 500 full time jobs, 350 part time jons and 100 seasonal jobs.
One Third of the UK population lives within and hour of the Peak District
Problems of tourism in the Peak District
- Soil Erosion
- Off road driving
- Emmisions from Tourists cars
- Traffic Congestion
- Pathway erosion (and cycle paths) - (solution=pennine way)
- Conflict with locals
- Seasonal jobs
- The more tourists th morr produce and prduct demand causeing more airmiles and lorry congetsion
- Parking on narrow roads
- BBQ's and dropping ciggarettes
- Damaging wildlife
Mass Tourism A and D's
MASS TOURISM - The organised tourism for large numbers of people going on holiday to the same place.
- More jobs
- Increases the economy
- People can meet others from different cultures
- Noise/air/water pollution
- Destroy coral reef and wildlife
- Footpath erosion
Mass tourim began in thw 1960's
Where is it?
- In the Carribean. Approx 800km form the south coast of Florida. In the Carribean sea. To the north of Culumbia in south america. East of Mexica. South east of the USA.
Tourists are attracted to the natural attractions such as beaches. Many people go to Montego Bay to swim, snorkel and sunbathe. People also go to Jamacia because of the weather and climate. It is hot all year round, reaching the highst temperatures of 32 in Summer months (June, July, August and September.
- They plan to accomidate people by ecouraging local people to open guesthouses in less developed areas
- They will encourage tourists to spend more money in local cafes, resturants and crafts
- To spead the tourism around the island the master plan will create tour guides to keep tourists off the beaten tracks.
Effects of mass tourism in Jamacia
- Money spent by tourists makes hotels and shops profitable. Hotels such as the Hilton Rose Hall Resort and Spa which provides 8% of the population with jobs and 14,388 rooms for tourists.
- Tourism contributes to 20% towards the GDP
- Economic Leakage, many people that work there are foreign therefore most money ends up abroad as wages get sent home so money doesnt stay and help the country.
- Most jobs in Jamacia are seasonal despite being hot all year round eg. school holidays will be busier.
- The Negril Marine park nature reserve ahs been made to help preserve sea life so tourists can see the sea lfe without damaging it.
- A water treatment plant at Logwood reduces pollution levels,
- Taxi minibuses are an easy way to travel from the airport which emits the exhaust gases which contribute to air and noise pollution and congetsion
- The coral reefs have been damaged by jet ski's and boat anchors
- Developing tourism leads to beach erosion.
Extreme Enviroments are areas of harsh conditions and climateseg. snowy, moutainous or Hot
Adventure Tourism is tourism involving some kind of risk or danger and provides a serious challenge, usually invlovessome kind of strenuous activity.
Places they may like to visit - The Alps, Saria Desert, Amazon, Nile, Artic
Getting travel insurence may be a challenge as there is a high risk
Why is Adventure tourism growing rapidly
- More adverts on social meadia ect.
- Group travelling makes it easier to participate and cheaper
- people can afford more adventerous hoilidays
- People have more time off work (paid holidays)
- Positive reviews from friends or on websites such as Tripadvisor
- It is the size of Europe
- Climate is -70 all year round
- People may visit the Vision Massif (highest peak)
- It is in ownership of 44 countries
- 37.5 thousands tourists visit each year
- you can travel by cruise ship in summer
- people visit for research or scientific reasons
- Most tourists visit the west coast
- IAATO -International association of antartica tour orginisations. they promote and practise safe tourism in antartica.
Why is it an extreme enviroment?
- It is the coldest and windiest place on earth
- one of the largest places on earth (8 million km^2)
- Very isolated
Impacts on Antartica
- Many ships have accidents in the icy sas as they are rocky. in 2007 the explorer hit an iceberg and sank resulting in an oil leak of nearly 18000 litres of oils.
- Tourists like photos of wildlie therefore they get very close meaning animals such as penguins get scared abd breeding numbers have decreased
- Large numbers to places such as 'Deception Island' has led to footpath erosion and due to the cold climate some plants can take up to 50 years to grow back.
- Tourist have previously stolen artefacts from historic buildings or they have benn graffitied on.
Why do people go there?
- it is one of the few unspoilt places on earth
- Young people and the grey market who can afford it can go
- Nowadays you dont have to be super fit to go to Antartica as there are cruise ship comforts
- There is a natural enviroment with unique wild life