Development: they way a country's economy grows
- Good average wealth
- Majority of people are employed
- High energy consumption
- High standards of living
- Good access to healthcare
- Compulsary education
- Most people low paid
- Most work in primary industry
- Low energy consumption
- Most people live in poor quality housing
- Few doctors and hospitals
- Varied access to education and vary literate levels
Why does the development gap exist?
- Level of industrial development: some countries have few industries and rely on a narrow range of industrial opportunities.
- Reliance on primary prroducts: some countries rely on a narrow range of primary products to earn money. The price of these products can fall and there is nothing they can do.
-Lack of technology: makes ift difficult for them to compete with other countries and they have to do the work manually which takes more time.
-Using resources to survive: effort is spent on gatering food and water so less time can be spent on the development.
- Lack of power: MEDCS use massive amounts of power.
-Nature of Trade: poorer countries rely on exporting basic goods for income but then have to purchase very expensive goods from abroad.
Development Gap Continued
-International Debts: poorer countries spend a lot of their money paying interest on debts.
-Political Instability: Countries are unstable and are involved in civil wars which uses and limits resources.
-Natural Disasters and environmental hazards: many countries have to also deal with the effects of natural disasters which uses up resources and slows development.
Quality of life: A good quality of life is someone having access to healthcare, good quality housing, access to clean water, good sanitation, access to a power supply, able to afford a good diet, good level of peronal security and safety and a low level of pollution and general environmental conditions.
Human development index: Uses the following to come up with a figure between 0 and 1. 1 being excellent
- Life expectancy
- School enrolement and atainment (literacy rates)
- real GNP per person and what this actually buys them in the area they live in.
Aims of sustainable development:
- Improve the quality of life for local people
- provide a secure income for the local community
- Develop ways of increasing production without falling into debt
- conserve the natural environment
- develop technology that is appropriate to the skills, wealth and needs of the local people.
Reducing the Gap
How can the gap be reduced?
LEDC'S need to be able to develop their economic and social activities. Creating more jobs, improving agricultural output and building new roads will increase the money in the country. If living standards are to improve more money needs to be spent on housing, healthcare and education.
How can this be achieved?
LEDCS can borrow money, encourage transnational companies to set up industries to provide jobs and allow the voluntary aid (charities) to help with small scale projects like coping after natural disasters. Trade between MEDC's and LEDC's is often not good because markets do not always allow goods from LEDC's, prices are increased in MEDC's and are low in LEDC's meaning that MEDC's are profiting.