Casestudy: Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland
Plate boundary: Constructive
Plates: North American and Eurasian
Dates: 20th March 2010 (eruptions began), 14th-19th April 2010 (new explosive phase)
Primary impacts: ash covered everything, farmland ruined, ash cloud, 800 people were evacuated lava and ash have nutrients = fertile soil, rocks can be used for buildings
Secondary impacts: eruption occured beneath a glacier, it melted = flooding, water supplies contaminated with fluorine Eyjafjallajokull has become a tourist attraction, geothermal energy can be used for electricity and hot water
Responses: Emergency services and residents were prepared, good warning system in place, high-tech equipment used, residents evacuated quickly, further research carried out.
Case study: Yellow stone national park
Characteristics: big scale, can emit atleast 10,000km³ of material, have large depressions called Calderas
Evidence that another eruption could happen: the magma beneath it is shifting, the caldera is bulging up and there's increasing activity at Norris Geyser, the ground has risen 70cm in places
Local impacts: lives at risk (87,000 people could die) people would have to evacuate (atleast 100miles away), ash and debris everywhere.
National impacts: north-west America would be ruined pyroclastic flows 50km away people could inhale ash and debris
Global impacts: Ash cloud could cover the sun -> becomes dark air traffic would stop climate change -> become cold
Case study: The Andes
Location: Along the west of South America. It runs through 7 countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.
Plates: Nazca plate (moving east) and South American plate (moving west)
Plate margin: destructive subduction margin
Dimensions: 7000km in length, 4000km high, 300km wide
Uses: Farming, Mining (Yanacocha Gold Mine), Tourism, HEP (hydroelectric power)
Case study: Kobe, Japan 17th January 1995
Epicentre: roughly 20km away from Kobe, Awaji Island. It had a shallow focus at a depth of 15-30km which caused a lot of damage.
Magnitude: 7.2 on the Richter scale, lasted 20 seconds
Primary effects: About 6,000 people died, 40,000 people were injured, 300,000 made homeless 75,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed Bridges and roads collapsed Railway lines were destroyed
Secondary effects: Fires broke out across parts of the city Gas pipes broken, water pipes fractured Damaged roads (hard to get supplies) Some people slept in cars in winter conditions (-2)
Responses: Emergency services searched for survivors, hospitals treated people in corridors, 7-Eleven provided essentials, new laws passed to make more buildings earthquake proof.
Case study: Haiti, 12th January 2010
Epicentre: near the town of Leogane, roughly 25km west of the capital Port-Au-Prince. The focus was 13km underground
Magnitude: 7.0 on the Richter scale, by 24th January at least 52 aftershocks had been recorded
Primary effects: 220,000 people killed, 300,000 injured 1million made homeless, 100,000 homes destroyed, 200,000 damaged in capital Main port badly damaged, roads, buildings, vehicles destroyed
Secondary effects: over 2million left with no food and water, looting became a big problem Gov couldn't control Haiti, police forced collapsed Supplies couldn't get through (ports), frequent power-cuts People moved into tents, disease spread, dead bodies
Responses: search and rescue teams helped, aid from other countries -> America (water, food, medicine), field hospitals set up, Gov moved 235,000
Case study: Indian Ocean Tsunami, 26th December 2004
Description: an earthquake with a 9.1 magnitude hit Sumatra Island, waves reached 30metres
Margin: destructive plate margin along west coast of Indonesia. 20mile fault line below sea ruptured forcing one plate upwards.
Primary effects: Tsunami effected these countries: Indonesia, Thailand, India and Sri Lanka. 230,000 killed, 1.7 million people homeless, infrastructures damaged.
Secondary effects: 5-6million people needed emergency food, water and medicine, massive economic damage, millions of fishermen lost their livelihoods, tourism suffered (people scared), environment damage.
Responses: hundreds of millions of pounds were given by gov, charities, individuals and businesses, foreign countries sent ships, planes, soldiers, specialist rescue teams to distritbute food and water and clear up. Billions of pounds have been pledged to help rebuild the infrastructures, programmes have been set up to rebuild houses and get people back to work, a tsunami warning system and disaster management has been put in place.