Geography Case Studies

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London Docklands

Location: East of London

Dates : 1981-1997

Brownfield site which became abandoned and derelict

Causes of Decline: 

  • by 1981 larger ships could no longer reach the port of London
  • Poor transport routes made it hard to reach

Economic regeneration (transport):

  • Improved transport links
  • New railway carries 320,000 passengers a week

Economic regeneration (jobs and industry):

  • Between 1981 and 1996 employment increased from 27,000 to 69,975.
  • Unemployment fell from 14.2% to 9.5%. 

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London Docklands

Social Regeneration (facilities):

  • £100million spent on health, education, training and communtity programmes. 
  • New shopping centres
  • National Indoor sports centre

Social Regeneration (housing):

  • over 19,800 new homes were built 
  • By 1998 over 45% of homes were owner-occupied, rest rented or shared ownership.

Physical/environmental regeneration:

  • 160,000 trees planted
  • 17 convervation areas created. 


  • Newcomers did not mix with locals, causing conflict and a breakdown of community
  • Most new jobs went to outsiders as locals did not have the technical skills. 
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London Congestion charge

What is congestion Charge?

A fee charged for some categories of motor vehicles to enter the congestion charge zone at certain times. 

Introduced: 17 February 2003


  • reduce congestion
  • raise investment funds for Londons transport system

How much is it?:

2003: £5

2008: £8

Currently: £10 

for each vehicle that travels in the zone between (7am and 6pm monday-friday)

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London Congestion charge


some vehicels are exempt (fire-engines, ambulances, taxis etc) 

and residents of the zone have a 90% discount


  • traffic cut by 18%
  • delays cut by 30%
  • Less pollution
  • Transport systems improved


  • More road works
  • Gridlock still occurs
  • Expensive for the British people. 
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Sustainable City- Curitiba

Location: 220miles south-west of Sao Paulo. It is the captial of Parana State (prime                           agricultural state in Brazil).

Curitiba grew rapidly from about 150,000 in 1950 to 1.6million today. 

It suffered from: 

  • Traffic congestion
  • Unusable land
  • Lack of basic services
  • Uncontrolled growth of squatter settlements
  • pollution

Jamie Lerner tackled 5 key problems in order to make the city a more sustainable area:



  • Pedestrianised inner city roads
  • Introduced transit system- 3 sets of roads leading into city, one in, one out and one which alternated depending on time of day.
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Sustainable City- Curitiba


  • Housing built near main roads- easy access to water, shops, roads and electricity
  • New bus system- one price for a ticket, one bus every minute


  • Unusable land turned into parks to allow the river to naturally flood.
  • planted 1million trees
  • Allow sheep to graze all year round- sustainable way of cutting grass


  • 5 different bins
  • Citizens sorted waste into organic and in-organic


  • Offered a deal: 5kg of waste for 1kg of food from government
  • Moving to new estates: Architects designed for free, people from slums worked to build the housing
  • Offered loans to help buy houses
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Tourism in the UK

Importance of tourism to the UK:

  • Creates jobs

      - both directly and indirectly

  • helps the country to develop industries

      - local industries such as farming get the opportunity to provide for locals

      - big industries such as construction get the opportunity to grow

  • Huge contribution to government income

     - also to the foreign exchange currency

  • attracts investment to improve infrastructure
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Mass tourism in Kenya

Why do tourists go to Kenya?:

Natural resources: year round hot climates, sandy beaches, coral reefs and wildlife reserves

Man-made resources: Well developed infrastructure and interesting diversity of cultures



  • uneven distribution and crowding
  • Littering
  • Damages ecosystems- Soil erosion
  • Destruction of coral 


  • Child trafficking and exploitation
  • encourages rural-urban migration and the growth of shanty towns
  • Traditional tribes are being disturbed
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Mass tourism in Kenya


  • Unskilled and poorly paid jobs
  • Only a few areas benefit
  • Over-reliance on tourism
  • Discourages the government to disersify other areas of industry


  • terrositis riots
  • piracy 

In 1997 over $450 million was earned from tourism! 

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Extreme Tourism- Antartica

  • contains 90% of the worlds ice
  • no native population
  • very fragile environment

Why visit Antartica?

  • scenery-untouched land, hot springs
  • more disposable income to spend
  • scientific purposes

Antartic treaty:

  • signed by 12 contries
  • Antartica should be used for peaceful and scientific purposes
  • Antartica will not be dug up or destroyed by tourists

IAATO- International association of Antartica Tour operators:

  • advocate, promote and practise safe and environmentally responsible private sector travel.
  • Keeps data on visitor numbers
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Extreme Tourim- Antartica

what has been done to protect the environment?

  • tour operators and cruise ships are only allowed to bring between 50 and 100 at one time.
  • Guidelines which tourists are expected to follow have been put in plac

      -litter has to be taken back to ships

      - tourists are not allowed to go near to the wildife

  • tourists are educated on the landscape
  • Only 20 people are allowed in a certain area at one time.


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Ecotourism- Machu Picchu

conservation:the careful and planned use of resources in order to maintain the natural environment for future generations.

stewardship:the careful benevolent management of the environment. It involves the careful control of development on a wide scale and seeks to maintain sustainable development.


  • unesco world heritage site since 1983
  • sits 2,400m above sea level
  • build in 1450

What happened before 2001?

  • visitors could walk without a guide
  • little thought was given to sanitation, rubbish disposal or waste
  • people could climb the ruins

this led to..

  • erosion of paths, health risks, water pollution, damage to trails
  • It was leading to permanent damage.
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Ecotourism- Machu Picchu

Rules set up:

  • independant trekkers are not allowed on the trail and walkers must be acompanied by a guide.
  • Trail is closed each february-the wettest month. This allows conservation projects to take place.
  • porters must have reasonable working conditions- paid at least $10 per day and can only carry up to 25kg.
  • Only 500 trekkers a day.

has it worked?

  • erosion has slowed
  • recycle bins are in place
  • pollution is being reduced.
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Sustainable City- Curitiba


  • 5 different bins
  • Slums offered 1kg of food for 5kg of recycling rubbish
  • Citizens sorted waste into organic and in-organic


  • Offered a deal: 5kg of waste for 1kg of food from government
  • Moving to new estates: Architects designed for free, people from slums worked to build the housing
  • Offered loans to help buy houses

All of these things made Curitiba a much more sustainable city! 

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