Development

Ways Development Can Be Defined

Economic Development -

an increase in the country's wealth. This may include an increase in the number of people working in the secondary sector compared to the primary sector or the inrease in natural resources used (increase in the energy per head of the population). 

Social Development - 

Changes that have a direct impact on people's lives. This can include improved literacy levels through an increase in the access to education or better housing.

Political Development - 

Freedom for people to have a greater say in who governs their country.

Cultural Development - 

This could involve better equality for women and better race relations.

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Factors that Contribute to the Human Development O

Technological - more machines used are used by society, both in work environments, like farming (that is efficient) and the building of factories, and in also domestic situations.

Economic - The move from a primary sector to a secondary sector to a teritary sector creates an increase in income and GDP for the country.

Cultural - Women are gaining more rights in society and are becoming equal with men. For example, the government giving them the right to vote. 

Social - Society has an equal distribution of wealth, with all children attending school and there being improvements in health care and living conditions. 

Food Security - When the country is able to provide their own food, or have the means to trade. The majority of the population have fresh piped water to their homes. 

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Different Ways of Measuring Development

GDP - (Gross Domestic Product) The value of all products and services produced within a year, in US dollars per capita (per person).

HDI - (Human Development Index). The measures the different features of life in different countries and is measured by: life expectancy, education and the standard of living. 

The measures of inequality (within a country or between countries; usually measurements of wealth or the health care of people) are:

CPI - (Corruption Perceptions Index) This is the perceived (corruption is often hidden and so difficult to measure) corruption in governments and the public sector. It suggests that the government is using development for its own betterment rather than the betterment of its country. 0 suggests a country is very corrupt and 100 means that there is NO corruption in the public sector.

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Physical Factors Which Has Caused Spatial Variatio

Climate - Countries that have an average rainfall and a moderate temperature are able to provide their population with their own food. However, countries in somewhere like Africa, with high temperatures and frequent droughts, are not going to be able to grow crops because they will die and this would lead to food shortages (people will not have enough food to eat). Also, disease thrive in hot climates - like malaria and yellow fever - which makes people weak and unable to work.

Landlocked Countries - Countries that don't have a coastline find it difficult to trade their goods. They have to rely on whether their neighbouring countries will give them permission to transport their goods to the coast and also receive imported goods. 

Natural Resources - Resources like minerals and fossil fuels help a country development because the extraction and selling these resources bring income to the country.

Natural Hazards - Floods, tectonic activity and droughts are likely to occur in some countries than others. Many countries that suffer from these natural hazards are developing countries because they have to divert their income on recovering from these events frequently. 

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Historic Factors Which Has Caused Spatial Variatio

Colonies - Colonies would supply food to the country that owned them. For example, Brazil gave Portugal minerals and food. This hinders the development of the colonies but increases the development of the 'mother country'. 

Trade - Many trading partnerships go back to colonial times. The countries that had good trading partners or countries on their trade routes developed more quickly than countries that did not trade. 

Politics - Countries with stable governments develop more quickly. Countries that are in war or are suffering from civil wars divert their income to weaponry rather than on development. Additionally, countries with corrupt governments are likely to spend the country's income on themselves and their affluent (expensive) lifestyles, than on the development of the country. 

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Economic Factors Which Has Caused Spatial Variatio

World Trade - the developing countries sell primary products to developed countries. Manufactured products are worth more money than primary products so developed countries earn more from trade than developing countries. 

Foreign Investment - this can help a country develop because it is bringing money into a country. Africa is home to 15% of the world's population yet only recieves 5% of direct foreign investment. Europe is home to 7% of the world's population and receives 45% of direct foreign investment. However, things are changing as companies in developed countries start to invest in emerging countries, like Coca-Cola in India. 

Infrastructure - the country's roads, railways and facilities (like electricity). Developed countries have good infrastructure and so companies would want to invest in them because they know their products were be produced and transported very quickly. 

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Physical Factors That Have Contributed to Spatial

Relief - The south of the UK is flatter and this helps development because so it is easier to build urban areas on. The north and west are more mountainous, making it more difficult to build urban areas and communication routes on the land.

Climate - The south and east have better climate (they have less rainfall) that the rest of the country which makes it a pleasanter area to live in. 

Natural Resources - The Midlands, North and South Wales started to develop with the discovery of natural resources, like coal.

Position - The south and east of the country are closer to communication links to Europe which makes companies want to be located there. 

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Historical Factors Which Has Caused Spatial Variat

Politics - The seat of government are in London, the south east of the UK. This made it a desirable place for businesses in the past because London was were all the descisions were made so they found out about them more quickly. 

Colonies - Although the ships sailed for the colonies on the west of the country, all the descisions were made in London, on the east of the country. 

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Economic Factors Which Has Caused Spatial Variatio

Infrastructure - London has the best infrastructure in the country with all roads leading to the centre of London. Companies who are thus located there would be able to trade easily with the rest of the country.

Foreign Investment - Most foreign investment in the UK is in London. However, the government has tried to encourage foreign companies to invest in other areas of the UK - like Honda in Swindon. 

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Impacts of Uneven Development Globally

Access to housing - In developing countries, most of the population live in poor-quality housing with no running water or sanitation; in developed countries, there is housing and fresh water.

Food + Water Security - As countries develop, its water + food supply becomes more secure because the country has the technology to improve the intensity of agricultural production and water supplies. It's also wealthy enough to invest in food if they can't produce their own.

Employment - In developed countries, most of the population work in the tertiary and quaternary industry. In developing countries, the most of the population work in the primary industry.

Health - The lower the development, the higher the number of people per doctor. As a country develops, the amount of doctors increases because the of the increase in educational levels. 

Education - Literacy levels relate to the country's development. The lower the GDP, the lower the country's literacy rate. 

Technology - The higher the development, the more the technology in a country improves. You can measure this by looking at the number of internet users in a country. 

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International Strategies to Try and Reduce Uneven

International Aid:

Bilateral Aid - Money given from one government to another government, usually with attached agreements such as: the receipent country has to give building projects to the donor government. Example: India has given Bhutan money and engineers for a hydroelectric scheme and Bhutan gives India electricity for a cheaper rate than its local people. 

Multilateral Aid - Money given from mutiple developed countries to international organisations like the World Bank and the UN and the money is then redistributed in the form of loans to poorer countries. 

Official and Voluntary Aid - Governments (like the UK and USA) give money that charities can bid for to develop aid projects globally. 

Voluntary Aid - Money raised from charities and donations.Organisations like Oxfam and Save The Child raise money through fund raising events, private donations and charity shops. This money usually funds bottom-up projects.  

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Intergovernmental Agreements

These are agreements between developed world nations to work together to provide aid for developing countries. One of these agreements is with the EU: they give aid in different ways, like sector support. This is when the EU gives funds, in order to improve education, directly to educational departments in the developing country and not the governments - so that they don't use the money without EU direction and the EU also is able to know where the money is directly going.

The development of emerging countries like Brazil, China and India have seen these countries become major donor countries of aid - this is known as the South-South development co-operation, which has 30 countries that are donor members. They develop poor countries and one of the biggest donors is China, but China usually demands things in return for money the give to receiptent countries. 

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Advantages and Limitations of Top-Down Projects

 These are schemes (usually large) that are planned and controlled by the the government.

Advantages - 

  • The country will develop more quickly because of the size of the scheme.
  • Due to schemes being controlled by government, they are more likely to achieves its development objectives.
  • Large HEP schemes, are the only way to raise the capital due to the size of the project.
  • It is a way of helping the urban population but it is usually at the expense of rural areas. 

Limitations -

  • The country will go into debt and in some cases, this debt will never be paid off.
  • Debts could have conditions attached, thus the country with have external influences for years.
  • The end project is usually very expensive to maintain.
  • Many of the work in building the project is made from machines or foreign companies which then creates no jobs for the locals.
  • Local people have no say in the project and so they can lose land.
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Advantages and Limitations of Bottom-Up Projects

These are schemes that are controlled and planned by the local community to help their local area. 

Advantages - 

  • The scheme is run by the community and so is likely to meet its development objectives.
  • The end project is usually cheap to maintain.
  • It's a way of helping the rural poor. 
  • Local people decide what happens with the project and their community.
  • Appropiate technology is used (technology that is suitable for the skill level of the country.

Disadvantages - 

  • The country will develop more slowly because of the size of the project.
  • It does not help most of population that live in urban areas.
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The Three Gorges Dam

  • The biggest hydroelectric power station ever built
  • Dam has had many impacts on the development in South West China: it has improved trade as it allows container ships to go further down the river, it controls flooding and so agricultural production has improved and it proves clean, cheap electricity to thousands of people.
  • Limitations: 1.4 million people were moved from their ancestral homes, it cost the country $22 billion and led to the extinction of Yangtze river dolphins.
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Micro-Hydro Projects (Bottom-up Scheme)

  • Practical Aid is a charity that helps rural areas in developing countries by providing appropiate technology so people can have a better quality of life. 
  • An example of their schemes is the micro-hydro project: this is a small scale way of providing electricity to the rural communities from falling water (such as steep mountain rivers). 
  • The scheme lasts 20 years. 
  • The micro plant is owned by the community.
  • Maintenance is carried out by skilled workers in the community and so the scheme provides energy and employment.
  • Any excess energy is stored in a rechargeable battery and is given to people who live further away from the scheme for workshop machines and domestic lighting. 
  • This scheme creates little impacts on the environment and reduces the need to use wood for fuel.

Water from the river goes into a basin where the sediment settles at the bottom; water for the hydro plant is taken from the top of the basin. The water then flows down a channel to a forebay tank. The water from the forebay tank then flows through a pipe called a penstock. The water then flows into a power house and turns the turbines to produce electricity.

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Case Study - Tanzania (Location)

Tanzania is to the East of Africa.

National: Tanzania is to the south of Kenya and is north of Mozambique. 

Global:Tanzania is to the south east of Europe. Tanzania is east from South America. 

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Case Study - Tanzania (Political, Environmental an

Environmental: Tanzania is the 13th largest country in Africa, it has 800km of coastline and contains Africa's largest mountain: Kilamanjaro. It is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast of the country. It has 16 national parks as well as many game and forest reserves - 38% of its land it for conservational use. Central Tanzania is a large plateau with plains whilst the eastern shore is hot and humid. 

Social: It has a population of 50 million and is one of the poorest countries.90% of Tanzania's poor people live in rural areas. The population is unevenly distributed with many people living on the northern border or east coast and the rest is sparsely populated. There are two languages: English and Swahili - English is usually taught in schools. 

Political: Former capital was Dar es Saleem and it has most of government offices - it is the largest city and port and it the country's wealthiest area. Dodama, the current capital since 1996 was an attempt to improve the standard of living there. One third of the population live below the basic needs poverty line - this poverty reduction is slow.

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Case Study - Tanzania (Cultural Context)

Tanzania became independent from British rule in the early 1960s. The government decided to take a socialist political and economic approach after they realised that Tanzania's money was leaking towards countries that invested in them. The government thus decided to nationalise all banks and large industries. Tanzania also formed an alliance with China to build a large railway (TAZARA railway) from Dar Es Saleem to Zambia. From 1980, the country financed itself by borrowing money from the International Monetary Fund. Since then, the national economy has increased and poverty has been reduced. The country soon return to a free-market economy after a new president was elected and foreign investment was encouraged. 

Tanzania now tries to improve their infrastructure and reduce poverty - it is still one of the poorest countries in the world. 

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Why Development in Tanzania is Uneven?

The fastest rates of development have taken place in Dar Es Saleem, which used to be the capital city and still is the main port. People can get employment in the industry related to the port. In other parts of the country, people rely on agriculture to earn a living. 

Places with the highest GDP (Gross Domestic Product): Dar es Saleem, Songea and Arusha.

Places with the lowest GDP (Gross Domestic Product): Dodama, Tabora and Kagera.

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Case Study - Tanzania: Positive and Negative Impac

There has been a growth in the informal sector in rural and urban areas which is not good for the economy because people working in this sector do not pay taxes.

Positive impacts on the Primary Sector: Aid has been given to farming communities to introduce irrigation techniques that use appropiate technology. This should improve crop production which will help the country's development.

The mining of natural resources has brought foreign investment to the country. The recent discovery of gas and oil with help provide foreign investment in the future too.

Negatives: 

The sector is still dependent on the weather: drought make crops grow and etc...

Improving the productivity in the sector is crucial for a country's development.

The agriculture sector's methods for production are out of date. For example, Tanzania only use 9kg of fertiliser whilst Malawi (at a similar stage of development) uses 27kg. 

 

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Case Study - Tanzania: Positive and Negative Impac

Positive impacts on the Secondary Sector: 

The secondary's sectors share of GDP increased from 18% to 22% within 11 years. This brings extra money to the economy. 

Negatives:

Manufacturing's share of GDP is growing very slowly. It is concentrated only at products that are low value. 5% of employed people work in this sector. 

The sector needs to develop the production of other (high valued) goods through foreign investment. This will also create work for people who are low on skills. 

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Case Study - Tanzania: Positive and Negative Impac

Positive Impacts on the Tertiary Sector: 

The service sector continues to grow and a middle class has started to form. It has increased by 8% within 11 years. With more people working in these jobs, the country will be getting more taxes which will help it develop.

There has been a growth in the education sector with the expansion of primary school education to all children.

There has also been an increase in healthcare workers which provides employment for people with the skillset. 

Negatives:

If the country is to develop, this sector needs to continue to grow. 

Many jobs in this sector are for people who have the acquired skill - so for people to get jobs in this sector, they can go get them through increased access to education.

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Case Study - Tanzania: Positive and Negative Impac

Postive impacts on the Quaternary Sector:

The communications and financial services sector has increased by 15% within 9 years and are the fastest growing sectors in the economy. 

Negative impacts:

The sector requires a highly skilled workforce, which required high wages. It does not provide employment for the low skilled workers in Tanzania and therefore its impact on the poverty reduction is low. 

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Case Study - Tanzania: The Affect of Geopolitical

Foreign Policy and Military Pacts: Tanzania has been involved in other countries' disputes through foreign policy which has been expensive. For example: Anti-Amin forces in Uganda cost $500 million dollars. In the past, Tanzania has hosted refugees from neigbouring countries (like Mozambique and Burundi) usually in partnership with the UN - this again can be very costly if a country paid for a refugee camp themselves but Tanzania got help from the UN. Tanzania has always had good relationships with its neigbours and has held peace talks to try and end conflict in Burundi. It has economic pacts with Uganda and Kenya, and is part of the Southern African Development Community.

Defence: The country has a small army: 25,000 regular personnel and 80,000 reserves. Their main work is being part of the UN's peace-keeping missions in places like Lebanon. Tanzania also has a national service that is compulsory for people who want government jobs or want to go to university, it lasts up to 2 years. People can also volunteer to go to the army for 3 years. 

Territorial Disputes: It is in an ongoing dispute with Malawi over the owner of Lake Nyasa. Malawi says that the lake was given to them in the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty but Tanzania argues that the boundary between the two countries is in the middle of the lake which would mean that Tanzania and Mawlawi own half the lake each. This dispute has not been solved. 

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How Technology and Connectivity Support Tanzania's

The government has produced an ICT network for the whole country. 

It will provide the necessary fibre cables for other network providers (like mobile companies and broadband suppliers) to supply people in their homes. The network links to the cables come up the sea bed in Dar es Saleem. It is hoped that the network will also link landlocked countries like Uganda, to super fibre optic broadband.

Mobile usage in Tanzania has increased greatly with nearly 60% of the population using mobile phones and many using internet via their phone. 

Only 10 percent of population is connected with the internet but the government sees connectivity as one of the main drivers of development and is ensuring that the infrastructure is in place.

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Positives and Negatives of Rapid Development in Ta

Social Positives: improvement in life expectancy, improvements in fresh water supplies and sanitation (62% of population now have supplied water and sanitation) and all children have access to primary schools with attendance being above 80%.

Negatives: Some rural areas aren't benefited from improvements, 28% of the population still live below the povery line, rapid expansion in schools has led to lower teaching standards, 60% of students failed their secondary leavers' exam in 2012. 40% of jobs aren't filled in the because of the lack of healthcare professionals in the country.

Economic Positives: Improvements in GDP, improvements in foreign investment and a strong banking and financial sector. 

Negatives: There is still inequality in regions.There is still a large divide between the rich and poo: the richest 20% of the population accounted for 42% of total consumption whilst the poorest 20% consumed only 7%.

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Positives and Negatives of Rapid Development in Ta

Environmental Positives: Electricity has been introduced to rural areas via bottom-up schemes (reducing deforestation as wood is not needed for fuel). Proper irrigation schemes using appropiate technology will allow farmers to use land more efficently and stop overgrazing. 

Negatives: Gold mining causes problems of toxins leaking into water courses, quarries are left as scars on the landscape, there is deforestation due to the rise in population and wood used as a fuel for domestic use; this leads to loss of habitats and biodiversity. Overgrazing of farms in dry years is still a problem. 

The quality of life for people who live in rural areas and work in agriculture has not really improved. The government is trying to help these areas but the development there is slow and the quality of life is still not improving. The government has pledged in the next 5 years that they will put more money into helping the rural poor by directing aid money into appropiate technology projects.

Tanzania is above its neighbouring countries in terms of global community as it helps UN with refugees and also never has been in a civil war. Tanzania is fairly not corrupted by in 2014, there was a scandal that claims government official were taking money and all aid was suspended until the situation was sorted out. 

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