GCSE Biology Unit 2

Cards for AQA GCSE Biology unit 2

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Animal and Plant Cells

  • Animal and plant cells have structures that enable them to do their jobs
  • Plant cells have some structures that animal cells do not
  • Enzymes control the chemical reactions inside cells

Animal and Plant cells have these structures in common:

  • A nucleus to control the cell's activities
  • cytoplasm where many chemical reactions take place
  • a cell membrane that controls the movement of materials
  • mitochondria where energy is released during aerobic respiration
  • ribosomes where proteins are made (synthesised)

Plant cells also have:

  • a rigid cell wall for support
  • chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
  • a permanent vacuole containing cell sap

NOT ALL PLANT CELLS HAVE CHLOROPLASTS

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Specialised Cells (1)

  • As organisms develop, some of their cells become specialised to carry out their particular jobs. This is called 'differentiation'
  • Differentiation happens much earlier in the development of animals than it does in plants

Root Hair Cells:

  • Found at tips of growing roots
  • Increased surface area for more water movement
  • Large permanent vacuole which affects water movement
  • Positioned next to xylem tissue

Sperm Cells:

  • Contain genetic information from the male parent
  • long tail with muscle-like protein to swim
  • Middle section contains mitochondria for energy
  • Acrosome (tip) contains enzymes to break down the egg
  • A large nucleus contains the genetic information
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Specialised Cells (2)

Fat Cell:

  • Excess fat store
  • Very little normal cytoplasm, leaving more room for fat
  • Very few mitochondria as they don't need much energy
  • Can expand up to 1000 times its original size

Cone cell (eye):

  • In the retina and help us see in colour
  • Chemical called visual pigment in outer layer which changes chemically in coloured light
  • Mitochondria in middle section to produce energy to continually chemically change the visual pigment
  • A connection to the optic nerve (synapse) which is how the impulse triggered by the visual pigment is carried to the brain
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