' controlled and scientific exps. researcher is able to control all variables, except the IV which is manipulated.
+ scientific and controlled - extraneous variables can be minimised
+cause and effect - most confident the IV caused changes in DV
+replication - can be repeated and so reliabilty can be checked
- standardisation may creat DC - pps may respond to what they think is expected of them
-artificial - exp might not measure real life behaviour - low ecological val
' researcher manipulates the IV, but the exp takes place in real life natural settings.
+ ecological val - less artificial.
+DC - avoided if pps arent aware of study
- less control - other variables might be more likely in a study
- ethics - pps havent given informed consent
' is when the IV occurs naturally in real life, the researcher cannot 'create' different IV for the purpose of the study.
+ pps behave naturally as a result of little manipulation
+ less DC
+ passive researcher
- no control / not scientific
- cannot be sure if results are due to manipulation or other uncontrolled variables.