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' controlled and scientific exps. researcher is able to control all variables, except the IV which is manipulated.

+ scientific and controlled - extraneous variables can be minimised

+cause and effect - most confident the IV caused changes in DV

+replication - can be repeated and so reliabilty can be checked

- standardisation may creat DC - pps may respond to what they think is expected of them

-artificial - exp might not measure real life behaviour - low ecological val

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' researcher manipulates the IV, but the exp takes place in real life natural settings.

+ ecological val - less artificial.

+DC - avoided if pps arent aware of study

- less control - other variables might be more likely in a study

- ethics - pps havent given informed consent

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' is when the IV occurs naturally in real life, the researcher cannot 'create' different IV for the purpose of the study.

+ pps behave naturally as a result of little manipulation

+ less DC

+ passive researcher

- no control / not scientific

- cannot be sure if results are due to manipulation or other uncontrolled variables.

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