AO1 1 Division of labour
Adaptive in the EEA because it enhanced reproductive success and also helped avoid starvation, by maximising food production.
- Men were hunters - if women spent time hunting this would reduce reproductive successs.
- Men physically equipped to be hunters
- Women contributed to the provision of food by growing veg, milling grain and producing clothing.
AO2 1 Meat sharing hypothesis
- Stanford - males use control of meat as a means of attrating female interest.
- Hill and Kaplan- modern hunter-gatherer societies have found that men use meat as a means of gaining access to women.
AO2 2 Determinsm
- explain behaviour as directed solely through the biological approach with genes and nature.
- assumes men will always be the hunter and women always the provider.
- does not factor the role of social and cultural factors.
- assumption that genes alone guide behaviour is determenistic as nurture and environmental elements are not factored into behaviour yet known to play a role.
AO1 2 Gender role behaviour
- Men - mate as frequently as possible with females who are most fertile.
- Look for indications of youth and healthiness i.e. physical attractiveness - indicates greater fertility.
- Females - sought status and resources e.g. wealth and posessions. - need to be cared for during childbearing and rearing.
AO2 3 Buss et al
Buss et al;
- 37 different cultures - provide high cross sultural population validity
- Men placed higher importance on physical attraction while women sought status and resources.
- Showed traits sought were universal rather than culturally specific showing a possible evolutionary link.
AO2 4 Mate choice
Waynforth and Dunbar;
- used personal ads
- more men sought a physically attractive partner than women did (44% vs 22%)
- more women sought resources than men did (50% vs 34%)
- Strength - represented an individuals ideal bid in the process of selection.
AO1 3 E-S theory
- assumes women are better at empathising and understanding what people feel - make better mothers by being empathisers
- men are more adapt at systematising and building and understanding things - make better hunters.
AO2 5 Quotient questionnaire
- created the systematising quotient questionnaire which measured whether a person was pre-disposed to be systematic in their thinking or empathetic.
- Men = majority were geared to think more systematically
- Females = majority were empathisers.
- Supports E-S theory men and women’s gender roles may have formed due to evolutionary pressures shaping different patterns of thinking supporting evolutionary gender roles.
IDA Speculative Theories
Evolutionary explanations are speculative - do not have a firm factual basis.
Gender related division of labour may be a plausible explanation for the disappearence of Neandathals however - no direct evidence.
Other theories are equally plausible - climate change in Europe around 30,000 BC