Ethics

HideShow resource information

Roles of Men & Women

Catholic

  • "I do not permit a woman to teach" 1 Timothy
  • Women can only be in the congregation - not allowed authority over men
  • "The husband is the chief of the family and head of the wife" Pope Leo 13
  • "The husband represents christ, and since the wife represents the Church" Pope Leo 13
  • "Let a woman learn in silence with all submissiveness" 1 Timothy
  • "Wives be submissive to your husbands" Ephesians

Quakers

  • "There is nor male nor female, for you are all one in Christ" Galations 
  • Both should be equal
  • There are no vicars so either a man or woman can speak
  • "All made in the image of God" Genesis 1
1 of 23

Marriage & Marriage Ceremonies

Marriage - A legally recognised relationship established by a civil or religious ceremony

Catholics

  • Marriage is a Sacrament - an outward sign of an inward grace
  • Permanent and bound to God
  • "You shall not lie with a man as with a woman; it is an abomination" Leviticus
  • Homosexual acts are sinful, God destroys city Sodom after it was associated with homosexual acts
  • "Homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered" Catechism
  • "You shall not commid adultery" Exodus 20 - 10 Commandments
  • "Homosexual marriage is a non-negotaible

Quakers

  • Believe God has the power so there are no priest just God joining the couple
  • "God is love" 1 John
  • Agape - selfless, unconditional love

Ceremony

  • The welcome, declerations, readings, sermon, vows, ring giving and prayers
2 of 23

Divorce & Re-marriage

Divorce - The legal dissolution of a marriage

Catholics

  • "When someone gets divorced, she becomes an adultress" Matthew & Luke
  • "What God has joined together, let no one seperate" Mark
  • Marriage should be a life-long, eternal commitment - a sacrment - God was present
  • Annulments are allowed - proves that you were never married
  • Seperation is allowed 

Church of England

  • Does not encourage divorce but help sympathise with those in the situation

Quakers

  • Divorce is allowed and those divorced should be aloowed a chance of a new start
  • Before divorce the group will try and help to support the marriage
3 of 23

Sexual Relationships & Contraception

Contraception - The delibrate use of artificial methods to prevent pregnancy

Catholic

  • Do not believe in any sexual act that connot lead to pregnancy - children
  • They see contraception as killing innocent lives
  • When Onan wasted his semen on the ground God kills him Genesis 38
  • Contraception is a sin and goes against natural law

Church of England

  • Contraception is allowed because sometimes it is the best situation to prevent pregnancy
  • They understand it can also be used to prevent STD's
  • Procreation is the first view of the purpose of marriage - sexual relationships encouraged

Quakers

  • Care about doing the most loving thing so contraception is acceptable
  • Couples must be open to having children but sex doesn't alwasy need to result in pregnancy
4 of 23

Generic Answers to Life and Death

Catholic

  • Sanctity of Life
  • "Do not commit murder" Exodus 20:13 - 10 Commandments
  • "Made in the image of God" Genesis
  • Example of Jesus suffering 
  • "You are God's temple ... if anyone destroys God's temple, God will destroy him" 1 Corintians

Quaker

  • Quality of Life
  • Agape - selfless, unconditional love
  • "God is love" John
  • Good Samaritain - help those in need
  • "You have nothing if you dont have love" Corinthians
5 of 23

Abortion

Abortion - The delibrate termination of a human pregnancy by artificial means

In the UK the legal limit for abortion is 24 weeks

Catholics

  • "Abortion has been considered murder since the first centuries of the church" Pope Paul 6
  • "I chose you before I gave you life" Jeremiah 1
  • "You saw me before I was born" Psalm 139
  • "If you do make a misake, dont destroy the life" Mother Teresa
  • One of the 5 non-negotiables 

Church of England

  • "The foetus is to be specially respected and protected"
  • However they believe the mothers life to be more important
6 of 23

Fertility Tretments

Fertility Trestment - When a couple are infertile they may ask for medical help to allow them to have children

Catholic

  • Eggs, potential life, are destroyed in IVF
  • It is unnatural
  • You should accept the way God made you and not try adn change yourself
  • "Hannah had no children ... because the Lord had closed her womb" 1 Samuel
  • Scientists are playing God
  • AID involves a 3rd party with is adultery
  • It is not a human right to be able to have children

Quakers

  • Treat others as you would like to be treated
  • God is all-loving, he would want couples to be happy
  • Children can enrich a marrigae so couples should have the opportunity
  • "Go forth and multiply" Genesis
7 of 23

Euthanasia and Suicide

Euthanasia - A gentle, easy death

Suicide - When you take your own life

Catholic

  • All euthanasia is wrong as life is sacred
  • "It is a grave violation of the Law of God" Pope John Paul 2
  • Prefer the hospice movement as an alternative, palliative care
  • "If you destroy God's temple you too will be destroyed" 1 Corintians
  • Judas commited suicide and is portrayed as the ultimate sinner
  • It is a sin to commit suicide, you will go to hell adn cannot be burried in the church
  • One of the 5 non-negotiables

Quakers

  • "Show respect for the elderly" Leviticus
  • Can show Christian compassion by allowing those in severe pain to end their lives
  • Can be the most loving thing to do
8 of 23

Animals & Medical Research

Catholics

  • Animals do not have rights 
  • "Have dominion over every living thing that moves on the earth" Genesis
  • However "We owe them kindness" Catechism
  • Stem cell research is a non-negotiable

Quakers

  • Some do not approve of the experimentation on animals
  • Others however believe it can be acceptable in order to save human lives

For 

  • Animal suffering is minimised and reduced suffering of humans
  • Can lead to improvements in medicine to save countless lives

Against

  • Animals can feel pain and can suffer
  • 90% of products that mork on animals do not work on humans - pointless
9 of 23

Wealth & Poverty

Wealth

  • "Not to share ones wealth with the poor is to steal from them" Pope Francis
  • "God blesses those who come to the aid of the poor and rebukes those who turn away from them" Catechism

Causes of Poverty, Hunger and Disease

  • War, famine, unemployment, divorce, lack of education, low wages, natural disaster

Responses to Poverty

  • Pray for those in need
  • Support a relevant organisation (Fairtrade or charities like Oxfam)
  • Volunteer
  • Vote with it in mind
  • Write to your local MP
10 of 23

Concern for others

Charity - An organisation that gives help to people in need

  • Christian Aid - Aims to allow everyone to have a full life, free from poverty
  • CAFOD - Works to combat worldwide poverty and inequality
  • Tearfund - Focuses on ending poverty and conflict worldwide
  • Christians can pay a tithe - giving 10% of thir earnings to charity
  • They may volunteer at a charity shop, soup kitchen or raise funds for organisations
  • Christians could donate things such as food to charities

Caring for Others

  • "If any of your fellow Isrelites becoem poor and are unable to support themselves among you, help them" Leviticus
  • "Treat your neighbour as you would like to be treated" Mark 12
  • "If anyone has material possessions and sees his brother in need but has no pity on him, how can the love of God be in him?" 1 John
  • "Blessed are the poor, for yours is the Kingdom of God" Luke 6 - Sermon on the Mount
11 of 23

Uses of Money

Most Christians do not have a problem with money just how it is used

Christians believe it is their job to look after the less fortunate

  • "I command you to be open handed toward your brother and toward the poor and needy" Deutoronomy
  • "Whoever is kind to the needy honours God" Proverbs
  • "You cannot serve both God and Money" Matthew
  • "If you want to be perfect, sell your possessions and give it to the poor" Matthew
  • "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of God" Luke
  • "The love of money is the root of all evil" Timothy

Christians believe that gambling is wrong and is a misuse of money

12 of 23

Moral & Immoral Occupations

Moral Occupations - Ones that do not harm the worker or other people and has the correct intentions, it would include any job that helped or cared for people

  • Medical proffessional
  • Teacher
  • Emergency services
  • Charity Worker
  • Lawyer

Immoral Occupations - Ones that are forced upon someone that may exploit them or anybody else, they are jobs that go against church teachings or Christian beliefs and may cause harm

  • Prostitute
  • Pornography
  • Illegal drug dealing
  • Gambling
  • Alcohol production or distribution
13 of 23

Origins of the World & Life

Creationism

  • Read Genesis as literal, historical and scientific truth
  • Believe the world was created in 6 days and that God made Adam and Eve as the first humans

Evolutionism

  • Read Genesis as a metaphorical myth so would accept it as morally true
  • The teachings can be used but cannot be taken as literally true
  • Instead they believe in the adaptation of life over millions of years

Scientific Theories

  • Charles Lyell - The first geologist to work out the world was thousands of years old
  • Charles Darwin - Genetic, random mutation produces natural selection over a long time
  • Nicolaus Copernicus - Discovered the Earth wasnt at the centre of the universe but didnt share this with the church as they believed that Earth was at the centre as God made the universe for humans
14 of 23

People & Animals

Positive

  • God cares for all of creation so you do not respect God if you wrong an animal - Andrew Linzey
  • St Francis of Assissi used to preach to the birds and believed God made them so loved them
  • Jesus told humans to be kind to the helpless and week and animals are weak

Negative

  • Rational beings are entitled to rule irrational beings - Augustine
  • Animals were created to be used by humans and animals do not have the ability to reason so are inferior to humans - Thomas Aquinas
  • Jesus came to Earth as a human not an animal showing thy are more important - Karl Barth

Catholic

  • "Animals are God's creatures" "Men owe them kindness" Catechism
  • "It is contrary to human dignity to cause animals to duffer or die needlessly" Catechism
  • "God entrusted animals to the stewardship of those whom he created in his own image" Catechism
15 of 23

Environmental Issues

Stewardship - The principle that God left us on teh Earth to take care of and protect his creation

  • Christians belive God loaned the Earth to us and it is a privilage to be left in charge of it

Environmental Issues

  • Increased size of the hole in the o-zone layer
  • Global warming
  • Deforestation
  • Pollution

Responses

  • Pray about it or protest
  • Join a relevant organisation
  • Write to an MP about it or vote with it in mind
  • Reduce, reuse or recycle
  • "A way of life that disregards and damages God's creation ... is contrary to the versions of the gospel" The Call of Creation
  • "We do not own the world, and its riches are not ours to dispose of at will" Quaker Faith
16 of 23

War

Attitudes of War

  • Call Of Duty - Glorifies war making it exciting and takes away the realism of terror, fear and death
  • Dulce Et Decorum Est - Wilfred Owen describes the realism of war and young men dying
  • Joshua 10/11 - "Smote it with the edge of a sword" - God orderes Joshua to continue to smite people, demanding that everyone is killed
  • Exodus 11 - God orders all of the first born Egyptians to be killed

Just War Theory - Created by St Thomas Aquinas

  • Legal Authority - You must have the correct legal permission
  • Just Cause - A good, worthwile cause - a defensive war that protects thh innocent
  • Last Resort - Other diplomatic options should have been exhausted
  • Chance of success - Dont waste resources or people
  • Proportionality - The good created must outweigh the harm caused
  • Discrimination - In the war distinguish between military targets and civilians
  • Proportionality - During individual acts the good must outweigh the bad
17 of 23

Violence & Pacifism

Violence

  • "The lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died" Joshua
  • "The Lord said "all the firstborn in the land of Egypt should die"" Exodus
  • "The lord spoke to Moses saying "Avenge the children of Israel on the Midianites" Numbers
  • "I have not come to bring peace, but a sword" Matthew
  • Jesus went to teh temple, raged and overturned the tables adn chased out the animals" Mark/John
  • Nohas Arc

Pacifism

  • "Do not kill" Exodus - 10 Commandments
  • "If anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also" Matthew
  • "Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you" Matthew
  • "Those who live by the sword, die by the sword" Matthew
  • Agape - selfless, unconditional love
18 of 23

Human Rights

The Universal Decleration of Human Rights is a list of 30 basic rights that all human beings are inherently entitled to. 

  • Include the right to be free, right to life, right to safety, right to full equality and righ to marry

Attitudes to Human Rights

  • Mother Teresa - "Human rights are every beings entitlement by virtue of his (or hers) humanity"
  • Luther King Jr - "Commit yourself to the noble struggle for human rights"

Rights in the Bible and Church

  • The 10 Commandments suggests rights exist - Do not kill = Right to life
  • Jesus died to save everyone "neither Jew nor Greek" means everyone should be treated equally
  • Everyone is special because God makes man in his own image
  • Pope John 22 stated teh rights to live, to be respected, to freedom of speech, to worship adn education in his encyclical 'Pacem in Terres'
  • "The Universal Decleration of Human Rights ... will continue to be at the core of Christian Aid's work" 
  • They charity works to support human rights across the world
19 of 23

Principle of Equality

Equality

  • "There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus" Galatians
  • "God shows no partiality" Romans
  • "God created man in his own image" Genesis
  • "You shall love your neighbour as yourself" Mark
  • Adam and Eve were made equally, together in Genesis 1 
20 of 23

Racism

Racism - The belief that one race has superiority over another

Against

  • "Do not mistreat foreigners living in your land" Leviticus
  • "Do not take advantage of a hired man who is poor and needy, whether he is a brother Israelite or a foreigner living in one o your towns" Deuteronomy
  • "Love your neighbour as yourself" James
  • Jesus treated everyone equally so should we
  • Jesus died to save everyone
  • "From one human being he created all the races on Earth" Acts
  • Trevor Huddlestonn - C of E father served educational adn social needs in South Africa
  • Desmond Tutu - Leading spokesperson for apartheid adn racism in South Africa, after apartheid he reconciled with racists and said they should forgive
  • Martin Luther King - A Christian minister who protested against racism in America

For

  • Tower of Babel when people are scattered across the globe
  • Phineas spears interracial couple - Numbers 25
21 of 23

Religion & Gender

Catholic

  • "Only a baptised man validly recieves sacred ordination" Catechism
  • "The Lord Jesus chose men to form the college of the 12 apostles" Catecchism
  • "The church has no faculty whatsoever to confer priestly ordination on women" Pope John Paul 2
  • "A woman should learn in quiteness and full submission" Timothy
  • Women are not allowed to be priests but can be in the congregation

Quakers

  • "There is male nor female, you are all one in Christ" Galatians
  • Male and Female were made equally in Genesis 1
  • "Neither is the man without woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord" 1 Corinthians
  • "God created man in his own image .. male and female" Genesis
  • Quakers do not have priests so men and women have equal status in the church

 

22 of 23

Views of Other Religions

Exclusivism

  • The only true religion is Christianity and only they will go to heaven
  • "I am the way the truth adn the life. No-one comes to the Father except through me" John

Inclusivism

  • Belief that other religions hold some truth and you can get into heaven by being a good person
  • "My Fathers house has many rooms" John

Missionaries

  • People who believe it is their duuty to spread the word of Christ in order to save people from hell as they believe Christianity is the only way into heaven
  • "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations" Matthew

Evangelism

  • The spreading of the Christian gospel by public preaching or other means

Ecumenism

  • Promoting unity among the worlds Christian churches
  • "There is neither Jew nor Greek, for you are all one in Christ Jesus" Galatians
23 of 23

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all Christianity resources »