Proteins, catalysts and enzymes:

protein- long chains of amino acids

proteins can be;

  • tissue such as muscle
  • hormones
  • antibodies

enzymes are biological catalysts which speed up reactions

enzymes can :

  • biuld large molecules from many smaller ones
  • change one molecule into another
  • break down large molecules

factors affecting enzyme actions-

  • heat- if its too hot, the enzymes will stop working and will become denatured
  • pH- if its wrond the enzyme will change shap
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Enzymes in digestion:

digestion- the break down of large, insoluble molecules into smalller soluble molecules

Amylase--> produced by the salivary gland, pancreas and small intestine--> digestion of strach into sugars in the mouth and small intestine

Protease--> produced by the stomach--> break down of protein to amino acid in the stomach and small intestine

Lipase--> produce in the pancreas and small intestine--> breakdown of lipads to fatty acids and glycerol

Isomerase--> convert glucose to fructose syrup 

biological detergents contain lipase and protease to  digest food stains

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Advantage and disadvantages of using enzymes:


  • effective at removing stains
  • can be used at low temperatures- saves energy and reduces cost
  • cost of energy and equipment can be reduced


  • allergic reactions
  • may enter water ways
  • costly to produce
  • some fabrics such as wool will be digested by protease
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