- Accent - The ways in which words are pronounced. There will usually be patterns in the way that consonants are pronounced (or dropped) and the way vowel sounds are made. Accent can vary according to the region or social class of the speaker
- Context - The situation or circumstances in which speech takes place. This will impact greatly on the speech encounter, and the way speakers will adapt their speech depending on the audience and environment.
- Dialect - The distinctive grammar and vocabulary associated with a certain region. This related to the words and phrases themselves and should not be confused with the way the words and phrases sound.
- Emphasis or stress - This is often shown in Underlining pr boldening to show that a word, or part of a word, has been said in a particular way. i.e. louder or with more force to make a point of what is being said.
- Filler - These are words that do not carry conventional meaning, but are inserted into speech to allow time to think, to create a pause or hold a turn of conversation. Examples include, Um, Er, ah, ok.
- Jargon - Specific technical vocabulary related to a specific task or occupation.
- Interruption - This occurs when one speaker jumps in and sseizes the topic, overriding another speaker. This can be done out of enthusiasm or indignation rather than rudeness.
- Overlapping - This occurs when more than one speaker speaks at the same time. This could be for a range of reasons and not necessarily for a disagreement, though it could be. More often in speech it shows the speakers are on the same wavelength, and one may complete anothers sentence to show that one supports the other.
- Pauses - These are breaks in speech that can be very short(micro-pauses) or much longer (timed pauses, in seconds) and are used for a range of effects: thinking time, hesitation, waiting for a response, to indicate a turn in the conversation is complete.
- Turntaking - This is the basic structure of speech. Participants in a conversation take turns to speak. A turn is a time in which a single participant speaks, within a typical, orderly arrangement in which participants speak with minimal overlap or gap between them.
JR compliments and encourages LG. This is a common technique used by chat show hosts to rrelax and comfort their guest. It is designed to make the celebrity talk openly.
This time the compliments are more genuine, because she is now more of a celebrity than him, so JR treats her with more respect.
JR uses a lot of slang and informal language, to relate to a younger audience. This also brings an element of humor and a laid back style to the show. This may also make LG more comfortable as it is more informal.
This year there is still some use of slang, but a little less that 2009. JR adapts his approach to the interview because LG's fans are in the audience, but it is also his way of speaking.
JR shows control over the interview by being sarcastic and patronising towards LG. There are not many of her fans in the audience so JR uses this to make the audience laugh at her.
This year the interview is almost turned around. Rather that JR using humor against LG, she uses it against him. She tells him she is going to hang up on him. She has a lot more confidence because she is more famous than him, and she has lots of fans in the audience
JR seems unprepared at some points, and he tends to use a lot of fillers and false starts. LG also uses quite a few fillers, which may highlight her nervous state. She thinks a lot about what she is going to answer before she says anything. She may also use this to denote interruptions from JR. JR has a tendency to ask unnatural questions, so LG needs more thinking time to answer them. This therefore gives JR little to talk about, which shows he is unprepared.
In this year JR is obviously a lot more prepared for the interview, and has a lot more respect for her success. LG is a lot more confident, and this is evident because she dominates quite a lot of the conversation, and turns it into talking about her career and her fans
JR's style is very different to many chat show hosts, because he aims quite a lot of the questions about his own life. This therefore means that the celeberity has to promote themsleves. He tends to ask very closed and unnatural questions, which LG doesn't know how to answer. This shows up a fault in his questioning technique. He is also quite personal with his questions, but LG knows that she wants to keep certain things to herself, for example her real name.
JR knows a lot more about her career as a singer, and has adapted his questioning sytle to suit. He also adapts to the audience, because there are lots of her fans there, so he doesn't tend to mock LG. He tends to ask more open question, and LG takes advantage and dominates much of the interview, and goes into greater depth about her career and fans.
Paralinguistics. LG comes onto the interview with a teacup. She uses it as a diversion technique so that she doesn't have to answer certain questions she is not happy with. She almost uses it as a physical barrier between her and JR. However JR uses the teacup as a way to inject sarcasm into the interview, and to mock her.
In this episode LG haas a lot more control and uses her telephone hat to show off her persona. JR doesn't ridicule her this time, but compliments her on her style, but LG uses it for humor and to get the audience laughing at JR. This also gives her some control to the interview.
In this year JR is quite dominating with his body language. He leans towards her which shows that he is being intimidating and dominant. Possibly because of this, LG tends to hide behind her teacup and fringe. Her foot also twitches quite a bit, which may show that she is nervous.
JR uses a lot more open body language, and is not dominating, but is showing her to open up. LG doesn't even face him, but looks more out towards the audience, and to her fans. This almost seems like she is showing JR that her fans are much more important than he is, and she is dismissing him.
JR uses a lot of sexual innuendo in his shows to add humor to the show. The people that come to watch his show are adult, and they have come to expect this of him. He also uses this innuendo to maintain control over the interview. However some of this humor is misconstructed by LG being American, and not understanding what this means.
- 1.What does a person's accent tend to rely on?
- 2. If talking to a child, how might someone change the context in which they are speaking?
- 3.How might emphasis or stress be shown in a transcript?
- 4.What is a filler? Give examples.
- 5. How might interruption be described?
- 6.What are the main two types of pauses?
- 7. What is the typical arrangement for turntaking?
- 1. Region or social class
- 2. They might use simpler vocabulary, talk with more emphasis, shorten sentences.
- 3. Usually underlining or boldening
- 4. A word which carries no conventional meaning. Examples include um, er, ok, kinda, erm..
- 5. Where one speaker jumps in and seizes the topic, overriding another speaker.
- 6.Micro pauses and timed pauses
- 7.Participants speak with minimal overlap or gap between them