English Literature

  • Created by: Anjalee
  • Created on: 03-06-13 11:12

The Tempest: Context

  • King > Man > Woman
  • Gonzalo = relativism (ideas of right and wrong differ from place to place)
  • All events happen in 'one voyage' - a miracle - Can good be substained?
  • Social Morality isn't a product of social class
  • Animal instinct = attempting a coup against the ruling powers
  • Columbus assumed superiority - saw people as potential resources and not allies
  • Metatheatre - assures 'no suffering' in epilogue (soliloquy)
  • 'Our Revels are now ended' - Shakespeare's retirement
  • Prospero assumed power of god by forgiving charcters (omnipotent) Almost an Omniscient narrator
  • Turns away from the power which corrupted others
  • Storms - God's dissatisfaction
  • Equilibrium - 'Calm seas'
  • Aristotle: Three unities of time, place and action
  • Surface Realism
  • Jacobean audience = supersticious due to King's beliefs
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The Tempest: Context

  • Songs = entertainment/ progression of plot/ exploration of characters
  • Music = divine harmony, Antonio and Sebastian are outsiders
  • Peace = 'heavenly music' or another agent of Prospero's control?
  • Masques - rhyming couplets - celebration
  • Opposing views = subjective experience judged by comparison
  • New Testement: values of showing mercy / forgiveness
  • Prospero never appologises to Caliban
  • Cultural Hegemony
  • Pathetic Fallacy: human emotions reflected in nature
  • Magical Realism; innovative of Shakespeare
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The Tempest: Critics

  • Coleridge: 'The highest and lowest characters are brought together.'
  • Coleridge: 'The poet has raised [Caliban] far above contempt.'
  • Moulton: 'The gift of civilisation is turned into a curse.'
  • Lamming: 'Caliban is [Prospero's] convert, colonised by language and excluded by language.'
  • Schlegel: 'Caliban 'always speaks in blank verse.'
  • Said: 'You cannot continue to victimize someone else just because you yourself were a victim once - There has to be a limit.'
  • Fanon: 'The oppressed will always believe the worst about themselves'
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The Tempest: Quotes


  • What cares these roarers for the name of king?
  • Incharitable dog


  • O, I have suffered/with those that I saw suffer
  • Rapt in secret studies
  • Does thou attend me?
  • Thou art inclined to sleep
  • Hell is emty and all the devils are here!
  • Hast thou forgot/ That foul witch Sycorax
  • This island's mine, by Sycorax my mother
  • If you be maid or no?
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The Tempest: Quotes


  • My son is lost and in my rate [Claribel] too
  • You rub the sore when you should bring the plaster


  • I prithee, be my God
  • We will inherit here


  • I am your wife, if you will marry me
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The Tempest: Quotes


  • Servant monster
  • Seize his books
  • The isle is full of noises - sounds and sweet airs


  • You are three men of sin
  • They now are in my power


  • We are such stuff as dreams are made on
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The Tempest: Quotes


  • I'll break my staff
  • Sebastian... I do forgive thee, unnatural though thou art
  • Violate the honour of my child
  • How beauteous mankind is!
  • These are not natural events
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The Rivals: Context

  • Eloped with Miss Linley at 20
  • Omniscient narrative
  • Sheridan's grandfather had strict ideas about education like Sir Anthony Absolute
  • Lydia doesn't want to be the object of her suitor's needs
  • Sensibility: react emotionally; experience over knowledge. Reaction to rationality
  • Lydia's love of sentimental novels suggests she won't be easily controlled
  • Comedy of Manners: life, ideals and manners of upper class society is humorously depicted
  • Public life involved 'surfaces' of clothes and hair
  • Restoration Comedy: wealthy, young woman falls for a young often penniless soldier
  • Age of Sensibility: 1745-1780
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The Rivals: Critics

  • Kaul: Sheridan is concerned with the problem of a woman's freedom in society
  • Boaden: Faulkland expresses... the author's own passion for Miss Linley
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The Rivals: Quotes

  • The Delicate Distress
  • He expects every thought... to move in unison with his
  • [Lydia] might reprehend what she is saying
  • Let him object if he dare
  • (altering her manner)
  • I fear for... her life
  • Would you have me tell her a lie?
  • How charming will poverty be with him!
  • I was afraid he would never give me an opportunity
  • I am sure I hated your poor dear uncle before marriage
  • Men are all barbarians!
  •  I used to dress so badly
  • We had never had a quarrel
  • Vowed I’d never see him more
  • Myself his debtor
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The Wife of Bath: Context

  • The Great Schism led to the questioning of the church
  • Chaucer represnts part of a continuing tradition
  • Iambic pentameter and rhyming couplets, closest to natural speech
  • Unreliable narrator, dramatic monologue
  • Prologue is nearly three times the tale
  • Patriarchal society
  • Experience grants authority
  • Griselda in 'The Clerks Tale' is an example of an ideal
  • Men = sinners (Knight), Women = wise and forgiving
  • Anti-feminist - proves Jerome right, resembles enemy
  • Power is important, doesn't offer equality
  • St Paul: the wife owes husband too < Chaucer's view?
  • Impressive learning without education
  • Hag = fey (stock figure from Arthurian romance)
  • Moral: males shouldn't take advantage of females
  • Avante-garde: rejects norms Amplification: larger than life
  • Hyberbole: exaggeration
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The Wife of Bath: Critics

  • Jill Mann: 'The just response to male 'oppressioun'.
  • Kittredge: Sequence of tales which forms a closely-knit exploration of marriage.
  • Marxism: Challenges hierarchy.
  • Dryden: 'The father of English poetry'.
  • Jovinian: The state of marriage is equal to virginity.
  • Jerome: Virginity is more important than marriage - best way to manage lust. Women invite lust and degradation.
  • Hebron: An openness to multiple readings is the only way to appreciate her complex personality.
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The Wife of Bath: Quotes

  • Experience
  • Auctoritee
  • I nil envye no virginitee
  • Twelve yeer was of age
  • Paye his dette
  • Hooly in myn hond / Bridel in myn hond
  • Swere and lyen as a womman kan
  • Thou seist
  • Deceit, weping, spinning (anti-feminist. ironic)
  • Al is for to selle
  • Oon... moste bowen
  • Fyn scarlet reed
  • Not bigonne
  • My fifthe... I took for love and no richesse
  • Janglaresse
  • Wikked wives
  • Womman was the los of al mankinde
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The Wife of Bath: Quotes

  • I lay as I were dead
  • Al was fals
  • Flour is goon
  • Rafte hire maidenhed
  • Women desiren sovereignetee
  • Maistree
  • Lusty bacheler
  • Wyf, maide, widwe
  • My dettour
  • Thre were goode
  • Of any oother had delit
  • Olde, loothy (loathly lady: archetype of Medieval Lit)
  • Joly clerk Jankin
  • Bele chose (colloquial euphemism)
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