Types of energy
Resource: any aspect of the environment that can be used to meet human needs.
Non0renewable energy resource: (finite/stock) resources built up or evolved over time e.g coal/oil. stock is depeleted when used due to slow rate of formation. fofossil fuels/nuclear.
Renewable energy resources: (flow) natural rate of availability yielding continuous flow that can be consumed without endangering future consumption as long as current use doesn't exceed net renewal during same time period. e.g solar/ hydroelectric
Critical - sustainable energy resource e.g forests/plants/ animal waste which require close management
Non critical - everlasting resources such as tides, waves, running water and solar.
Primary and secodnary energy
Primary energy resources: raw materials used for power in their natural form e.g coal/oil/ wood/uranium. can be converted to secondary energy . industrialised contries need continuous supply of energy for survial, LEDCs rely more on wood, peat and animal waste.
Demand and consumption of energy has grown over the last 200 years:
Rapid population growth, last 50 years in less developed contries.
Economic development and wealth, middle class society, more wealth more personal mobility and demand for goods.
Technological change, first the development of the stream engine, fueld by caol during industrial revolution in 19th century. 20th century demand for oil outstripped coal due to combustion and jet engines being developed.
Primary energy in the uk
Uk was self-sufficient in primary energy resources, producing quantities of its own coal (drax oil power station) and natural gas (Immingham gas power station).
still significant coal reserves, demand has gone down and they're not economicallt viable at present. equally clean air legislation led to demand for cleaner fuel sources.
Coal industry privatised in 1990's since then all pits in UK have closed.
Natural gas/oil dominate uk primary energy supply, in 21st centuary (70%). share of natural gas increased significant;y in recent years, total increase of 85% since 1990. cao decreased by 40%. renewable resource only 2% of toal primary energy,
Uk has proven oil reserves of 4 billion barrels/natural gas reserves of 0.53 trillion m cubed(end of 2005) depletion of reserves and decrease in domestic coal produciton hsa lead to dependenced on imported energy. uk net energy importer in 2004 since 1993 but sitll exporter of il and has lowest import dependencies in eu. Natural gas overtaking coal as primary fuel in britain. currently Norwaty has large reserves of natural gas but russia most likely to overtake.
Primary energy in UK
in 2005 76% of uks energy was fossil fuel soruces, 19% nuclear and $.5% renewable sources. government (kayapo project)
Global patterns of energy supply, consumption and
Marked energy gap between rich and poor nations.
Nearly third of worlds population (low-income countries) have no electricity or mordern energy suppoles and are dependent on wood/biomass for energy needs.
Developed countries oil provides bedrock for modern life (peak oil reached) 90% of transport relies on oil products and it's needed for: Pharmaceutical/chemical/food industries. more developed consume 75% of total supply of three major fossil fuels, china and india developing, set to increase.
IEA (international Energy Agency: world will require 60% more energy in 2030 than in 2002, fossil fuels will meet demand( changes in global warming projects and demand for governments means decrease in fossil fuel use.) coal extremely polluting doesn't have much popularity.
Governments plans for cleaner and more efficient supplies.
Geopolitics of energy
Oil comapnies at risk of external events which effect supply and demand. Major risks of:
- growing risk of drisuptions to energy supply
- threat of environmental damage caused by energy production and use
- persistent energy poverty in the less developed nations of the world
energy consumption in LEDCs will surpass MEDCs by 2020. chinas ecomomy will be larget than usa and india will be larget than any European contry. casuing increased need for natural resources and potential conflict in finite resources.
Europeans will be come more dependent on middle east oil.
asin dependence on gulf oil will increase
russia will expand exports to europe