Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM)
- it is a tool used by health professionals to identify and treat particular disorders. over time some of the categories have changed because of social changes or attitudes.
- e.g. in 1973 homosexuality mental disorder then in 2005 sexual disorder not specified... it changed according to social change
- + around 1000 contributions, defintions of dysfunction change with time, specific document for specific population (appropriate)
- - may not be appropriate for all 350 million in USA, definitions culturally defined and never a permanany concept
international classification of disease
- used globally, each disorder given a numerical code, constantly being updated
- + 10th version, not ethnocentric, covers lots of behaviours and disorders
- - it suggests that psychological disorders can be categorised like medical disorders. inappropriate for psych disorders?
Definitions of dysfunctional behaviour
Rosenhan and Seligman - they decided a way of defining if someone os abnormal
- statistical infrequency- abnormal behaviours tend to be infrequent
- deviation from social norm- is the behaviour acceptable at time n place?
- can the individual funtion in society- they find normal life difficult e.g. not meet other people
- deviation from ideal mental health- jahoda (1958) said ideal mental health include things like positive view of one self, realistic view of world, etc.
- some peple with phobias may still be able to function e.g. phobia of outdoors... work from home
- all individuals suffer deviation from IMH at some point e.g. low self esteem but are not dysfuntional
+ deviation of the social norm considers different places/cultures/countries
+ it gives detail of the four different things that make you abnormal
Biases in diagnosis
ford and widiger (1989) -looked at sex bias in diagnosis
Aim-to investigate if health professionals introduced gender bias in their diagnosis
sample- 266 clinical psychologists (randomly assigned a case history of a patient, some had ASPD and some HPD or both)
procedure- they had to diagnose the illness of them. 7 point scale. cases rated on how much they had each symptom.
findings- unspeicified cases were mostly diagnosed with borderline personality disorder
-ASPD correctly identified in males 42% of the time whereas women 15%
-ASPD misdiagnosed in males 46% of time and females 15% of time
-HPD correctly diagnosed in females 76% of the time
watson and rayner
- showed how little Albert developed a phobia through classical conditioning
what they did?
- at the start the rat made no response
- rat presented with loud noise repeatedly
- association occurs
- rat =fear response
- 5 days later- also presented rabbit, rat, dog, seal fur, cotton wool= negative response
- 5 days rat=negative response
- 1 month later- all stimuli tested and produced negative response
- looked at a 9 year old girl called Lucy
- taught her breathing techniques and imagery techniques to relax
- Lucy had to rate fear out of 10
- lucy began to associate the noise with relaxation instead of fear
- by the end could pop a balloon herself
+ the data was quantifiable and reliable way of measuring the drop in fear
gottesman and shields