- Resemble an inverted spoon, with its steep side (stoss) facing the direction from which the ice advances.
- Up to 3km in length, 600m in width and 100m in height.
- Typically appear in swarms - their shape means they are identified as basket of eggs topography.
- Some have a central core of hard rock, or more resistant sediment, but some have no core at all.
- Debate over formation.
- Glacier becomes overloaded by moraine in contrast to the energy it has - so struggles to cope with transporting this amount in the lower course.
- Thus, moraine is deposited.
- Elongated shape related to direction of movement of the ice - blunt end facing the oncoming ice.
- Moraine contained within drumlin tends to reflect this pattern.
- Obstacles in path of glacier may be responsible, encouraging deposited material to be moulded into elongated shape.
- Other ideas suggest role of meltwater.
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Moraine - material produced by glacial erosion - unsorted (huge boulders & fine powder) and angular (processes that form material involve freezing and shattering).
- Ground moraine - spread all over the ground as a glacier retreats up valley in warmer times.
- Terminal moraine - rocks deposited in a ridge at the maximum advance of the ice.
- Lateral moraine - ridges of moraine that come from the valley sides and run parallel to those valley sides.
- Medial moraine - a ridge of rocks running down the middle of a valley formed by 2 lateral moraines from 2 glaciers coming together.
- Recessional moraine - run parallel to terminal moraines and these ridges of material mark the retreat of a glacier. Each recessional moraine marks a point where the ice has been static long enough in the glaciers retreat for material to build up.
- Push moraine - mounds of material found where a drop in temperature or increase in precipitation allows glacial re-advance, and the glacier pushes previously deposited moraine forward into a new landform. This can change the orientation of the stones found in the original landform.
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