Births - Birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year.
- long term decline in birth rate since 1900, was 28.7. in 2007 was 10.7.
> has been baby booms ( 2 world wars)
Total fertility rate
What determines birth rate is amount of women with childbearing age 15-44.
Since 2001, TFR has risen from 1.63 to 1.84 in 2007.
Baby boom was 2.95.
Reflecting: more women are childless. - women postpone having children
- average age is 29.6. increase in 30s/40s
> older women = less fertile + less fertile years
Reasons for decline in birth rate 1
1) Changes in position of women
- equality rights / more women in paid employment/ easier to acess divorce/ control of mensturation ( contraception)/ girls perform better at education.
2) Decline in infant mortality rate- measures number of infants who died before their first birthdays per thousand babies per year.
- sociologists say fall in IMR leads to fall in birth rate.
- same if infants survive, parents have less of them.
1900 IMR was 154. 15% of babies died in first year.
Highest IMR are in LEDC's.
>> First half of 20th century IMR drops : due to- Better sanitation/better nutrition/ better knowledge+ education/ fall in marriages- working women.
After 1950's medical factors play greater role. - mans immunisation against diseases such as : - whooping cough, diptheria etc.
Antibiotics were also used to reduce IMR.
Reasons for decline in birth rate 2
3) Children have become an economic liability.
Children used to provide for the family as they worked but not anymore.
Laws- banning child labour/ raising school leaving age to 18.
Changing norms > what children can expect from parents.
4) Child centredness >> socially constructed as a unique part of someones life.
- shift from quantity to quality with children.
Birth rates likely to increase > due to immigration.
Babies to mothers outside of UK was 22% of all births in 2005.
Effects of changes in fertility
1) Families are smaller with women working- ' Dual earners'
2) Dependancy ratio - relationship between size of working or productive part of population and size of non workers.
> money used to support dependant population.
- fewer babies > fewer adults earning + smaller working population
3) public services and policies.
Quality dependant on birth rates.
Two world wars made deaths rise.
Influenza epidemic to 690,000 death in 1918.
Death rate is number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
1900 > 19
2007 > 10
Reasons for decline in death rate.
Trauter > 1850-1970 3/4 death were from infection. ( tb, measles, influenza.)
- By 1950s, 'diseases of affluence' wealth took over infection eg heart disease, cancer.
Reasons for decline > natural resistance as a result of natural selection.
- weak people died off + didnt reproduce.
social factors - improved nutrition > increases resistance to disease.
X doesnt explain how woman who ate less of food supply lived longer than men?
> medical improvments
Child bird cause deaths in 1900s. - smaller families / higher incomes ( healthier lifestyle).
- improved sewage disposal / clean drinking water
How long an average person is expected to live.
In 1900 males were expected to live until 50. > 15% of babies died.
In 2003 males expected to live to 76.
Women expected to live longer - but gap between men is reducing due to employment/ smoking etc.
Working class, unskilled jobs meant men were 3x more likely to die before 65.
The ageing population
Number of over 65s likely to overtake 16 year olds by 2014. result of:
- increased life expectancy
- declining infant mortality rate
- declining fertility rate.
Effects of an aging population
Public services - older people consume more. ( nhs, transpost, social car etc)
One person pensioner households- account for 14% of households.
> mostly women as they live longer than men + younger than husbands.
Dependancy ratio- non working old are economically dependant through taxes, pensions, healthcare. - people will have to wait longer before they can retire.
Dependant children declining as old people rises.
Movement of people from place to place.
Immigration > movement into an area or society
Emigration > movement out
Net Migration > is the difference between numbers immigrating and emigrating.
consequence of imigration to UK was ethnic diversity.
- in 2001 8% of UK were ethnic minorities.
Emigration- economic reasons for increase in emigration in UK.
Recession, unemployment/ higher wages, better opportunities abroad.
Recent + future migration patterns.
1994-2004 imigration rose around 300,000 - 600,000.
Emigration rose around 250,000- 350,000
Net migration of 230,000 into UK
Reason for increase was EU > polland biggest share. to study or work.
Most people emigrating from Uk went to retire. eg spain.
-UK has low fertility rate of 1.84 children
> if not for immigrants, population would shrink.
> Immigrants mainly working age so pay taxes and arent dependant.
- But women migrants have higher fertility so short term add to dependance ratio as more children are born.
>> longer someone is settles, closer their fertility rate is to the national average.