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Births - Birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year. 
- long term decline in birth rate since 1900, was 28.7. in 2007 was 10.7.
> has been baby booms ( 2 world wars) 

Total fertility rate 
What determines birth rate is amount of women with childbearing age 15-44. 
Since 2001, TFR has risen from 1.63 to 1.84 in 2007.
Baby boom was 2.95.
Reflecting: more women are childless. - women postpone having children
- average age is 29.6. increase in 30s/40s
> older women = less fertile + less fertile years 

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Reasons for decline in birth rate 1

1) Changes in position of women 

  • equality rights / more women in paid employment/ easier to acess divorce/ control of mensturation ( contraception)/ girls perform better at education.

2) Decline in infant mortality rate- measures number of infants who died before their first birthdays per thousand babies per year. 
- sociologists say fall in IMR leads to fall in birth rate.
- same if infants survive, parents have less of them.
1900 IMR was 154. 15% of babies died in first year.
Highest IMR are in LEDC's.
>> First half of 20th century IMR drops : due to- Better sanitation/better nutrition/ better knowledge+ education/ fall in marriages- working women.
After 1950's medical factors play greater role. - mans immunisation against diseases such as : - whooping cough, diptheria etc.
Antibiotics were also used to reduce IMR.  

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Reasons for decline in birth rate 2

3) Children have become an economic liability.
Children used to provide for the family as they worked but not anymore.
Laws- banning child labour/ raising school leaving age to 18.
Changing norms > what children can expect from parents.

4) Child centredness >> socially constructed as a unique part of someones life.
- shift from quantity to quality with children.

Birth rates likely to increase > due to immigration.
Babies to mothers outside of UK was 22% of all births in 2005. 

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Effects of changes in fertility

1) Families are smaller with women working- ' Dual earners'

2) Dependancy ratio - relationship between size of working or productive part of population and size of non workers.
> money used to support dependant population.
- fewer babies > fewer adults earning + smaller working population

3) public services and policies. 
Quality dependant on birth rates.  

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Two world wars made deaths rise. 
Influenza epidemic to 690,000 death in 1918.
Death rate is number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
1900 > 19
2007 > 10

Reasons for decline in death rate.
Trauter > 1850-1970 3/4 death were from infection. ( tb, measles, influenza.) 
- By 1950s, 'diseases of affluence' wealth took over infection eg heart disease, cancer.
Reasons for decline > natural resistance as a result of natural selection.
- weak people died off + didnt reproduce.

social factors - improved nutrition > increases resistance to disease.
X doesnt explain how woman who ate less of food supply lived longer than men?
> medical improvments

Child bird cause deaths in 1900s. - smaller families / higher incomes ( healthier lifestyle).

  • improved sewage disposal / clean drinking water 
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Life expectancy

How long an average person is expected to live. 
In 1900 males were expected to live until 50. > 15% of babies died.
In 2003 males expected to live to 76.
Women expected to live longer - but gap between men is reducing due to employment/ smoking etc.

Working class, unskilled jobs meant men were 3x more likely to die before 65.  

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The ageing population

Number of over 65s likely to overtake 16 year olds by 2014. result of: 

- increased life expectancy 
- declining infant mortality rate
- declining fertility rate.

Effects of an aging population
Public services -  older people consume more. ( nhs, transpost, social car etc) 
One person pensioner households- account for 14% of households.
> mostly women as they live longer than men + younger than husbands.
Dependancy ratio- non working old are economically dependant through taxes, pensions, healthcare. - people will have to wait longer before they can retire. 
Dependant children declining as old people rises.  

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Movement of people from place to place. 
Immigration > movement into an area or society
Emigration > movement out
Net Migration > is the difference between numbers immigrating and emigrating.

consequence of imigration to UK was ethnic diversity.
- in 2001 8% of UK were ethnic minorities.

Emigration- economic reasons for increase in emigration in UK. 
Recession, unemployment/ higher wages, better opportunities abroad.  

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Recent + future migration patterns.

1994-2004 imigration rose around 300,000 - 600,000. 
Emigration rose around 250,000- 350,000
Net migration of 230,000 into UK
Reason for increase was EU > polland biggest share. to study or work.

Most people emigrating from Uk went to retire. eg spain.
-UK has low fertility rate of 1.84 children
> if not for immigrants, population would shrink.

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Dependance ratio

> Immigrants mainly working age so pay taxes and arent dependant. 
- But women migrants have higher fertility so short term add to dependance ratio as more children are born.
>> longer someone is settles, closer their fertility rate is to the national average.  

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