Deffinitions - Chemistry

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First Ionisation Energy

The first ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to produce 1 mole of gaseous ions, each with a +1 charge.

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Succesive Ionisation Energies

Succesive ionisation energies are the sequence of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. ionisation energies required to remove the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. electrons from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms of an element.

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Electronegativity

This is the ability of an atom to attract the bonding pair of electrons.

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Empirical vs Molecular

Empirical Formula - the simplest whole number ration in a molecule.

Molecular Formula - the actual number of atoms in a molecule.

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Oxidation Number

The oxidation number is the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of anouther element.

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Atomic vs Mass

Atomic Number - the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (also equal to the number of electrons)

Mass Number - the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

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Bondings

Ionic - Metal + non-Metal

Cobalent - Non-Metals only

Metallic - Metals only

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Atomic Structure

An orbital is simply a region in space where we are likely to find electrons.

Order of Filling -

1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 5d, etc.

When 3d gains electrons it lowers in energy and becomes part of the 3rd shell.

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