First Ionisation Energy
The first ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to produce 1 mole of gaseous ions, each with a +1 charge.
Succesive Ionisation Energies
Succesive ionisation energies are the sequence of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. ionisation energies required to remove the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. electrons from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms of an element.
This is the ability of an atom to attract the bonding pair of electrons.
Empirical vs Molecular
Empirical Formula - the simplest whole number ration in a molecule.
Molecular Formula - the actual number of atoms in a molecule.
The oxidation number is the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of anouther element.
Atomic vs Mass
Atomic Number - the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (also equal to the number of electrons)
Mass Number - the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Ionic - Metal + non-Metal
Cobalent - Non-Metals only
Metallic - Metals only
An orbital is simply a region in space where we are likely to find electrons.
Order of Filling -
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 5d, etc.
When 3d gains electrons it lowers in energy and becomes part of the 3rd shell.