Cultural Deprivation: Intellectual Development
Intellectual development refers to thinking and reasoning skills.
Cultural deprivation theorists argue working class homes lack the books, educational toys & activities that would stimulate a child's intellectual development.
Dogulas: Working class pupils scored lower in test of ability than middle class pupils.
This is because working class parents are less likely to support their childs intellectual development through reading & educational activities at home.
Bernstein & Young: found that middle class mothers are more likely to chose toys that encourage thinking and reasoning & prepare children for school.
Cultural Deprivation: Language
Bernstein: distinguishes between two types of language restricted & elaborated code.
Restricted Code - Working class. Simple Vocab. Short, unfinished sentences. Gestures. Context Bound.
Elaborated Code - Middle class, wide vocabulary, complex sentences, context free, the meaning is explicit.
The differences in speech give the middle class pupils an advantage in school. Due to elaborated code being used by teachers, textbooks & exams. Working class pupils lacking the code in which schooling takes place an are likely to feel excluded & less successful.
Bernstein & Engelmann claimed working class language was deficient. Therefore children fail to develop necessary language skills & are unable to perform as well in school.