Class: Internal Factors

  • Created by: Lily
  • Created on: 13-04-22 13:34



- Labelling occurs when a characterisitc is ascribed to individuals. They're simplified descriptions. May become expressed publicly which changes others opinions and cause them to make assumptions of people. People tend to live up to their label.

Becker labelling in secondary schools: 

Teachers judged pupils according to how closely they fitted the ideal pupil - work hard, academically able, appearance, personality, middle class fit based on class not ability.

- Rist labelling in primary schools:

Teachers use information about students home background and appearance to place them into seated groups on tables. Fast learner "tigers" m/c, neat/clean, nearest to teacher to show encouragment. "cardinals" and "clowns" further away w/c given low-level books to read.

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy


- teacher labels a pupil > treats pupil according to label, act if already true > student lives up to the label.

IQ test: false test identify spurters. 20% random sample chosen to be 'spurters' a year later another test was done of the spurters 47% made more progress. Teacher interacted with them differently allow progress. SFP occured.

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Subculture: group with shared values and behaviour patterns different from mainstream culture. pro and anti school.

LACY: result of streaming, at grammar school all pupils selected at 'bright' at age 11, bottom stream pupils still formed anti-school subcultures as they were labelled as failures. (Hagreaves)

LACY: teachers immediatley differentiate students into two groups, students graviatet towards higher or lower end they've been put in - polarisation.

BALL: students put into sets according to percieved ability not actual ability, students form groups that reflect class differnces w/c form anti-school. Beachside comprehensive - process of abolishing bands and go to mixed ability, basis for people to polarise largely removed anti-school declined. differentiation continued categrorised differently SFP occurs.

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Setting and Streaming

setting: classes according to ability subject by subject.

streaming: classes according to ability same for all subjects.

ADVANTAGES: work at own level and pace

DISADVANATGES: streaming - better at some subjects than others not challenged enough and struggle in others. Both lead to low self-esteem if put in low bands. Ball - teachers had high expectations for high ability classes more attention, low bands = negative labelling increase differences in achievement.

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Educational Triage


Rank each school according to exam performance, need a good position in league tables to attract pupils for funding.

Schools focus their time effort and resources on the pupils they see as having potential to get C's to boost their position table.

1. Those who will pass anyway

2. Borderline C/D pupils - targeted for extra help

3. Hopeless class - ignored (w/c and black pupils) bottom sets SFP to fail.

EVALUATION: introduced progress 8 takes into account every student and if reach target grade from primary to secondary, benefit w/c areas still reach lower targets and ranked equally.

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Nike Identities


- Symbolic capital: schools have m/c habitus so those socialised into m/c values gain status and recognition from school - worth and value.

- Symbolic violence: school devalue w/c habitus seen as worthless denied status.

Causes w/c to underachieve as see school as alien and 'not for the likes of us' to be successful had to change how they talk and look.

- W/c gain status through wearing sports brands accepted by friends. conflict with school as they oppose 'street' style call them rebels.

- Education was unrelaistic and undesirbale for w/c not for us doesnt suit thier habitus.

- They self-exclude choose not to do well, not their identity.

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Criticisms of Labelling

- Not all students accept their label, some reject it. (fuller - black girls in london knuckled down and proved teachers wrong)

- They say labelling theories overlook other things which may influence a persons educational success.

- School themselves encourage teachers to label students have entry tests teachers have no control over.

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