Chile Vs. Nepal - Earthquake Case Studies (HIC Vs. LIC)

Chile - Basic Facts

  • On 27th February 2010, an earthquake measuring 8.8 on the Richter scale hit the central coast of Chile.
  • The cause was a destructive subduction plate boundary (the Nazca plate and the South American plate moving towards each other).
  • The ground shook for more than 3 minutes.
  • Tsunami waves raced across the Pacific Ocean at speeds of up to 800km an hour.
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Nepal - Basic Fats

  • On 25th April 2015, an earthquake measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale hit the north-west of the capital city of Nepal, Kathmandu.
  • It was caused by a destructive collision boundary (the Indo-Australian plate colliding with the Eurasian plate).
  • The epicentre was around 80km/50 miles to the north-west of Kathmandu.
  • The earthquake caused damage in Nepal, India, Tibet and Pakistan.
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Chile - Primary Effects

  • 500 people died.
  • 12,000 people were injured.
  • 20,000 people were affected.
  • 220,000 homes, 4500 schools, 53 ports and 56 hospitals were destroyed.
  • The cost of the earthquake was around $30 billion.
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Nepal - Primary Effects

  • 9,000 people died.
  • 20,000 people were injured.
  • 8 million people (over a 1/3 of Nepal's population) were affected.
  • 3 million people were left homeless.
  • 1.4 million people needed food, water and shelter for days and weeks after the earthquake.
  • The cost of the earthquake was around $5 billion.
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Chile - Secondary Effects

  • 1500km of roads were damaged.
  • Several coastal towns were affected by tsunamis.
  • A fire caused at a chemical plant near Santiago - the area was evacuated.
  • Several Pacific countries hit by waves/tsunamis - though warning prevented loss of life.
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Nepal - Secondary Effects

  • Avalanches on Mount Everest killed 19 people - the greatest number of deaths on the mountain in a single incident.
  • Another avalanched caused 250 people to go missing.
  • A landslide caused the blockage of a river 90 miles from Kathmandu, forcing an evacuation.
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Chile - Immediate Resopnses

  • Emergency services acted swiftly.
  • Power and water were restored within 10 days.
  • A national appeal made $60 million, which helped to make emergency shelters.
  • International help supplied field hospitals and satellite photos.
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Nepal - Immediate Responses

  • Financial aid from many countries assisted with 500,000 tents for the homeless.
  • Field hospitals were set up to support overcrowded hospitals.
  • Search and rescue teams were sent from Uk, India and China.
  • Helicopters rescued people caught in avalanches and social media was used in search and rescue operations.
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Chile - Long-Term Responses

  • 1 month later, Chile's government launched a housing reconstruction operation.
  • A strong economy based on copper exports could be rebuilt, without the need for much foreign aid.
  • The President announced it could take 4 years for Chile to fully recover.
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Nepal - Long-Term Responses

  • Thousands of homeless rehoused and damaged homes were repaired.
  • The Red Cross gave blankets or cash grants to families who had lost their homes and winter clothing as winter approached in 2015.
  • 700 schools were repaired.
  • Tourism, a major source of income, was to be boosted.
  • The Everest base camp was repaired and reopened 6 months later.
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