Acids & Bases
The pH scale measures how Acid or how Alkali a substance is.
- Stomach Acid and Car Battery Acid (Sulfuric Acid) have a pH of 1, they are very strong Acids.
- Vinegar and lemon juice have a pH of 3, Acid Rain has a pH of 4, Normal Rain has a pH of 5 and pure water has a pH of 7 (it is neutral).
Anything with a pH higher than 7 is a base, or an alkali if it dissolves in water.
- Washing up liquid has a pH of 8, Pancreatic Fluid has a pH of 10 and Caustic Drain Soda is a very strong Alkali, with a pH of 14.
ACID + BASE --> SALT + WATER - This is Neutralisation.
Ionic Equation: H+ + OH- ---> H20 The product of this reaction has a pH of 7.
Acid & Bases Part 2
Sulfuric Acid has a pH of 1. It is so strong, it can cause burns when you come in to contact with it. It has a number of uses:
- Car Batterys
- Manufacturing Processes (Making Fertilisers and Detergents).
- To clean and prepare metal surfaces coated with insoluble Metal Oxide
Sulfuric Acid + Metal Oxide ---> Soluble Metal Salts + Water. Then the products can be washed away.
2 Types of Bases: Metal Oxides and Metal Hydroxides.
Somes Metal Oxides (alkalis) + Hydroxides dissolve in water. Bases that won't dissolve still react with acids. Both Metal Oxides and Hydroxides react with Acids to form a salt and water.
ACID + CARBONATE ---> SALT + WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE
ACID + AMMONIA ---> AMMONIUM SALT