Chemistry - Acids and Bases

pH scale, Neutralisation, Acids, Alkalis, Bases, Metal Oxides, Metal Hydroxides, Various Acid Reactions.

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Acids & Bases

The pH scale measures how Acid or how Alkali a substance is.

  • Stomach Acid and Car Battery Acid (Sulfuric Acid) have a pH of 1, they are very strong Acids.
  • Vinegar and lemon juice have a pH of 3, Acid Rain has a pH of 4, Normal Rain has a pH of 5 and pure water has a pH of 7 (it is neutral).

Anything with a pH higher than 7 is a base, or an alkali if it dissolves in water.

  • Washing up liquid has a pH of 8, Pancreatic Fluid has a pH of 10 and Caustic Drain Soda is a very strong Alkali, with a pH of 14.

ACID + BASE --> SALT + WATER - This is Neutralisation.

Ionic Equation: H+ + OH- ---> H20 The product of this reaction has a pH of 7.

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Acid & Bases Part 2

Sulfuric Acid has a pH of 1. It is so strong, it can cause burns when you come in to contact with it. It has a number of uses:

  • Car Batterys
  • Manufacturing Processes (Making Fertilisers and Detergents).
  • To clean and prepare metal surfaces coated with insoluble Metal Oxide

Sulfuric Acid + Metal Oxide ---> Soluble Metal Salts + Water. Then the products can be washed away.

2 Types of Bases: Metal Oxides and Metal Hydroxides.

Somes Metal Oxides (alkalis) + Hydroxides dissolve in water. Bases that won't dissolve still react with acids. Both Metal Oxides and Hydroxides react with Acids to form a salt and water.



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