Charles

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Charles' Characteristics Positives

+ Positive beginnings with Parliament

+ Well ordered Court

+ Intelligent 

+ Protestant

+ Better financier

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Charles' Characteristics Negatives

- Speech Impediment 

- Not Likeable

- Prerogative/Divine Right

- Foreign Policy a problem

- Diplomacy a problem

- Too reliant on key individuals

- Sympathy with Arminianism

- Married Henrietta Maria - Catholic.

- Can't take critisism or advice

- Doesn't tolerate others views

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Spanish Front

  • An alliance with Christian IV of Denmark whereby, in exchange for financial support from England, he would attack the Catholics in North Germany.
  • Financial support for the Dutch in the same cause. 
  • An English army of 6000 men to be provided for Mansfeld.
  • A sea war against Spain to try and cut off it's supplies of golld and silver from South America. These supplies from the Spanish colonies then went on to pay for the forces.

Parliament had voted subsidies of only around £250 000 for sea war. They were not clear about the other plans that Charles and Buckingham had- plans that would cost around £2 million. If all the plans had gone well, Parliament may have covered the cost, but they didn't succeed so they wouldn't pay. 

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Foreign Policy Failures by 1626

  • Mansfelds failure 1625 - The 6000 troops were raised largely by impressment. They weere equipped badly with no training before being shipped off to Holland. Mansfeld did not have the organisation to look after them and 4000 died of starvation, the rest never fought anuyway. 
  • Cadiz expedition - Charles and Buckingham decided to attack the Spanish port. Ahgain troops were raised from the Counties and most troops were untrained. They went ashore but found a huge wine store. Troops had to withdraw having done nothing. They decided to wait at sea and intercept the Spanish fleet but it failed.
  • Christian IV - He didn't invade but instead was defeated by General Wallenstein. 
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French Match

With Buckinghams new anti-Spanish policy, Charles and Buckingham lookied for a new ally in Europe, and a new bride for Charles. They saw diplomatic advantages in the marrying of Henrietta Maria and Charles. France was becoming increasingly worried about the successes of the Hapsburg Spanish and the Imperialists in the Thirty Year's war and might be persuaded to take part against them. Henrietta would also bring a dowry of £240 000 which would help finance the war. 

However, in order to please the French, Buckingham had lent them English ships which were used against the Protestant rebels. Meanwhile Charles, anxious for Parliamentary subsidies, wished to keep suspicions of secret "Roman Catholic" deals with France to a minimum. 

The French Cheif Minister regarded Charles and Buckingham as unreliable and had no intention of joining them in a war agaisnt the Hapsburgs. Buckingham reversed his policy of trying to join in a French alliance and, to gain popularity, decided to help the Huguenots, who were beseiged by French Royal forces at the Port of Rochelle.

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La Rochelle and Buckingham's Death

In 1627 Buckingham led a naval expedition to try to land troops at La Rochelle to support the Huguenots. The landing at Ile de Re in 1627 was another disaster and Buckingham had to retreat to his ships. By this time Buckingham was the most despised man in England, seen as the driving force behind a series of military failures, Ile de Re was the last straw. 

In 1628 Buckingham was killed and this had a great effect on Charles. He never forgot or forgave the scenes of rejoicing in the House of Commons and he lost the heart for any further adventures in Europe. By 1630 he had made peace in both Spain and France and during the 30's pursued a neutral policy as far as any direct action was concerned. 

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Effects of War's in the 1620's

The war's put a lot of strain on the Counties. Charles had to raise forced loans and the Deputy Lieutenants had to collect troops, who were fed and housed by the Counties at their expense. Caused real divisions between the crown and political nation. 

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Consequences of Charles' War Actions

  • Buckingham's Death - improved team work.
  • French Match - Angered Protestants and French by reversing the plan and declaring war on them.
  • England was humiliated - Terrible plan of the Spanish front angered Parliament. 
  • War with a country we cannot afford to be at war with.
  • Money wasted - £250 000 given for Naval battles of which we didn't win any.
  • Half the population were Catholic so would not want War with the Spanish. 
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Charles' Parliament of 1625

Key events

  • Planned War
  • Commons distrust them, only two subsidies of about £140,000. Tonnage and Poundage for one year instead of life of monarch but Charles continued to collect them.

Key Individuals

  • Sir Robert Philips ans Sir Edward Coke - regarded as radicals responsible for persuading the Commons to only vote Tonnage and Poundage for one year. 

Key consequences for Charles

  • Not make any concession, didn't consult the courts,
  • Didn't engage with leading figures.
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Charles' Parliament of 1626

Key events

  • Removed critics
  • Buckingham tried to keep influence and remove threats 
  • Got anti-Calvinist William Laud to preach the opening sermon.
  • Punishment of recusants to appease Parliaments. 
  • Threatening to return English ships.
  • Impeached Buckingham. 

Key Individuals

  • Sir Edward Coke and Thomas Wentworth were picked as Sheriff. 

Key Consequences for Charles

  • Putting in his own people would annoy Parliament. 
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Interim

Key events

  • Charles called on the prerogative finance of a forced loan. This was in order to fund his war against Spain and France. However only 70% of the expected £267 000 was collected. 
  • Five Knights Case - 5 forced loan registers challenged Charles' prerogative. A judgement upheld his prerogative to imprison those who didn't pay. 

Key individuals

  • Thomas Scot - referred to Buckingham as the biblical figure Agog.
  • Chief Justice Carrew - was dismissed due to not endorsing the legality of the forced loan.
  • George Abbot - suspended for refusing to license the sermons. 

Key consequences for Charles 

  • Many opposed his forced loans and referred to him as the Saul.
  • Foreign policy failure - La Rochelle
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Charles' Parliament of 1628-9

Key events

  • Parliament commons was willing to compromise and they used Coke. He was used to communicate direct with MP's. They were given 5 subsidies if they met their concerns, these were illegality of extra Parliamentary taxation. 
  • Billiting - forcing troops to fight unpaid. 
  • Material law to stop disorder in billiting troops - this annoyed loss of gentry. 

Key individuals

  • Sir John Coke - Secretary of State
  • General Heath

Key conseuences for Charles

  • Weakened his power due to rise of Parliament 
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Petition of Right - 1628

Presented to Charles by Parliament 

  • Forced loans/Benevolence/Impositions - should all become illegal and should not be used to raise money.
  • Shouldn't force people to pay by imprisoning them.
  • No prison without trial.
  • Must observe Habeus Corpus.
  • Everyone has the right to a fair trial. 
  • No billiting - costs a lot of money, turn up to people's houses who haven't paid forced loans.
  • MP's should decide changes in law - no punishment - no martial law without cause. 
  • All charges need to be attached to a law - some people were executed who didn't deserve death.
  • Avoid punishments as a result of martial law - individuals can't bring charges. 
  • Consult Parliament on all the above.
  • Don't punish Parliament for this petition. 
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Was Charles an absolutist? - Yes

  • Court of Star Chamber 
  • Militia army 
  • Suspicious of Gentry
  • Book of orders - expectations
  • Only consulted key individuals
  • Absolutist links - Henrietta Maria
  • Catholics in Court
  • Authoritarian style in nature 
  • Dismissed Parliament
  • Single minded
  • Divine Right of Kings 
  • Absolutist art collection
  • Made peace with France and Spain
  • Forest fines/Land Titles/Enclosure fines
  • Collection of custom duties including tonnage and poundage 
  • Increase in collection of recusancy fines
  • Monopolies/Wardships
  • Declares peace and continues to collect ship money, extending it to the whole country
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Was Charles an absolutist? - No

  • Influenced by other people - Wentworth
  • Gentry - local representatives with responsibilities
  • Privy council committees dealing with key issues 
  • Ambassadors of the Pope allowed in Court
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Personal Rule (1629-1640)

Financial problems Charles faced

  • Volatile 30 year war going on - threat of war
  • Has to use prerogative - annoys gentry
  • Enforce conformaty across Church of England

Cutting Expenditure

  • Peace with France and Spain - very expensive being at war
  • Reformed the household and cut court expenditure
  • Ambassadors of the Pope allowed in Court

Commission for Defective Titles

In 1628 Charles appointed a Commission for Defective Titles to raise fines in 3 areas

  • Forset fines - switched to old documentsso he could fine more people
  • Land titles - those who rented land from the crown but couldn't prove they had occupied it 60 years previous were fined.
  • Enclosure fines - illegally enclosed common land
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Personal Rule (1629-1640) cont.

Fiscal Feudalism

  • Collection of custom duties, including tonnage and poundage. Was only granted for a year but Charles continued to collect it. This brought Charles £270 000 a year. A new book of rRates updated the amount paid on goods as a custom duty. By the end of the 1930's the annual amount coming from custom duties had risen to £425 000.
  • Increase in collection of recusancy fines. These were fines on those who refused to attend the compulsary Protestant Sunday service. In 1634 £26 866 per year was raised.
  • Distraint of Knighthood - a fine on anyone holding land worth £40pa or more who had not recieved Knighthood on coronation. By 1635 £175 000 earnt from this.
  • Monopolies - most notorious was the granting of the Monopoly for soap to Catholics Popish Soap earning him £33 000. 
  • Wardships - personal rule increased to £75 000pa. 

Ship money

Money paid by people who live on the Coast for the running of the Navy while the Country is at war. Charles declared peace and still continued to collect ship money and extended the fines to the whole Country and then used the ships to help the Spanish. 

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Consequences of Personal Rule

  • Pulling out of was looks like he's favouriting Catholics
  • Undermines authority - non loyal courtiers.
  • People don't like him using his prerogative.
  • Sends mixed messaged to Catholics. 
  • Alienated people unnecessarily 
  • May alienate traditional supporters.
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Laudianism during the Personal Rule

  • Laud wanted to restore the 'Beauty of Holiness' to church services. To him ceremonies were a vital part of worship.
  • He wanted to restore to the church the wide power and influence that it had held in politics and society before the reformation. 
  • He was also concerned to raise the educational level of the parish clergy and to make them the 'equal of any Gentleman in England' 
  • He believed that the altar should be moved away from the centre of the church. When in the centre of the church it was not respected. Laud ordered that the altar should be moved to the East side of the Church and railed off so only the minister should approach it. 
  • Laud re-issued the Book of Sports in 1633. THis encouraged dancing, archery and other activities on Sundays after Church services. Some rural communities welcomed these, others were outraged. 
  • There was an overproduction of religion graduates some of which could not find a job. They got paid to lecture about Puritanism. Laud was suspicious about their idea's being too Puritan and he decided to tighten up and took away licenses from lecturers. 
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Problems with Laudianism during the Personal Rule

  • Worries over his dominance - The belief grew that Laud was a secret Roman Catholic subverting the Church. Laud sat in every Royal Court as well as Church Courts. He sat on the Commision for Enclosure where he fined the Gentry. The Star Chamber was disliked and Laud used it to punish his political enemies. 
  • Punishment of puritans - Three Gentlemen were punished for libels against the Bishops but even though they were Gentlemen, they were treat like common criminals. They had their ears clipped and were put in the pillory. A crowd spread flowers and dipped hankerchiefs in the blood. It was seen by the Gentry as a threat to their social position. Therefore, Laud's policies were creating opposition on account of Puritanism and because these were Puritan Gentlemen.
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Problems with Laudianism during the Personal Rule

Laud became very unpopular.

  • His belief in Divine Right and associating himself fully with Charles' policies. His policies caused opposition throughout the population.
  • His view on religious ceremonies, bowing at the name of Jesus and beautifying churches ran up against deep rooted prejudices among puritans.
  • Laud wasn't a Catholic but didn't share the predujice held by most English against them.
  • Lauds aim to raise the status of the Clergy to 'equal to any Gentleman in England' was resented, the Gentry felt humiliated.
  • Laud didn't appear to respect the social system, the only authority he emphasised was that of the King. Laud insulted and bullied the Gentry and had no respect for rank and dignity. 
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Hampden's case - 1637

John Hampden was a Buckinghamshire gentleman, refusing to pay ship money. Because Sheriffs had experienced some difficulties with collection it became a test case. The argument revolved around whether the King had the right to declare an emergency and then tax his subjects. If it were found that the King did not have the right to decide when there was an emergency this would take away one of his constitutional rights over foreign policy and defence. The judges decided 7 to 5 in favour of the KIng. However, the fact that five judges, all appointed by royal appointments, decided against the crown was seen as significant and took the gloss off the King's victory.

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Is there a case for Archbishop Laud? - Yes

  • Laud wasn't a Catholic.
  • He gave his name to an important movement within the Anglican Church - left a legacy. 
  • Most effective organiser.
  • He was the main spring affecting effecting his own and his Master's wishes. 
  • Nothing escaped him - he was efficient.
  • He led the way with the rebuilding of St Paul's Cathedral.
  • Laud's emphasis was on order and discipline and he stressed the superiority of the altar to the pulpit.
  • Laud took his duties seriously. 
  • Laud was personally generous to poor apprentices in Reading.
  • Anti-Puritan element liked him.
  • Cleanliness in church.
  • Government should operate for the Governed 
  • Trusted by Charles and given multiple positions. 
  • Self made man
  • Flattered the pope.
  • Cultural revolution. 
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Is there a case for Archbishop Laud? - No

  • His role in the Civil War.
  • Terrible temper.
  • Crypto Catholic??
  • Gentry and Landowners alienated. 
  • Closing public houses angered under graduates.
  • Book of Prayer imposed on Scotland - Bishops War. 
  • Out of date aims which were unrealistic.
  • Believed in the Divine Right of Kings - Tseudo-Catholic Changes
  • Pope offered Cardinal 
  • "Worst appointment"
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Thomas Wentworth

Thomas Wentworth was 1st Earl of Strafford.

Relations with Crown

  • 1626 - Charles removed him from Parliament by making him Sheriff so he could not be elected to Parliament. 
  • After dissolution of 1626 Parliament he was dismissed from the justiceship of the peace and the office of customs rotolurum of Yorkshire.
  • Refused to pay forced loan in 1626 and was imprisoned along with 76 other people.
  • 1628 - one or more vocal supporters of the petition of the Rights to curb the power of the King. 
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Thomas Wentworth cont.

Particular Roles

  • Knighted by James in 1611
  • Inherited baronety in 1614
  • MP for Yorkshire in 1614
  • Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1626
  • Viscount in 1628
  • Privy Council in 1629
  • Lord deputy of Ireland in 1632
  • Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1640

Poacher turned Gamekeeper

He was critical of the Crown saying they had too much power and then became their biggest supporter and died for them.

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Wentworth in Ireland

Policy of 'thorough'

Was Wentworth's attempt to increase the royal authority through the imposition of religious conformity and the use of prerogative courts. It related to making money for the Crown. 

Why was he unpopular as President of the Council of the North?

It appeared that he had swapped sides in accepting the role. Wentworth made himself unpopular with the Northern Gentry and they saw him as agent of the imposition of central royal control against their interests. 

4 main groups in Ireland

Irish Catholics - Native Gaelic

Catholic Old English - Pre reformation

Protestant New English - Post reformation

Presbytarian Scots

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Wentworth in Ireland cont.

Wentworth's aims in Ireland

  • Impose the authority of the English Crown and Church on the Irish. 
  • Allow the English Crown to profit from Ireland.

How did he make Ireland financially independent?

  • A new 'Book of Rates' successfully raised finance for the Crown from Ireland. 
  • A fine on the City of London, the government of the capital city, of £70 000 also raised income. 

The 'Graces'

The Graces were an agreement that had been reached by the Irish Parliament and Wentworth. In return for subsidies of £120 000 over three years they were granted:

  • Recusancy fines would not be levied
  • Relaxation of checks on Catholics
  • Guarantee of land titles over 60 years old.
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Successes for Wentworth

Control Irish Church

  • Imposed Laudianism
  • Bramhall 1634 appointed Bishop of Londonderry
  • 1634 adopted the 39 articles - extended British authority
  • A new Irish Court of High Commission was established to enforce Laudianism

Aim was to create profit for the Crown

  • Rates 
  • Fines

Aim was to impose authority

  • Uses groups against eachother 
  • Impartial persecution
  • Army raised - ended Irish piracy
  • Still got subsidies from Parliament 
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Failures for Wentworth

  • Upsets Parliament 
  • What if he leaves? - Common enemy
  • Laudianism was a threat to the Protestants as they were already a minority
  • Siding with Protestants alienated (graces) the Old English
  • Key individuals became annoyed 
  • Alliance with Laud? - Evil advisors
  • English have fears that he might use the Army to enforce Laudianiasm in England 
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Why were the Bishop's Wars so significant?

Timeline of key events

  • 23rd July 1637 - Prayer bbok first reading followed by rioting.
  • August 1637 - Regular riots about the prayer book.
  • 20th September 1637 - Petition signed shows the start of organised opposition.
  • 18th October 1637 - Riot in Edinburgh
  • February 1638 - Petitioning movement by National Covernant
  • June/July 1638 - Agrees to send Hamilton to negotiate with Scots
  • November 1638 - Assembly annuled the canons and abolished episcopacy
  • April 1639 - Army was ready
  • June 1639 - Truce of Berwick
  • September 1639 - Wentworth returned to England
  • 13th April 1640 - Short Parliament created
  • 5th May 1640 - Short Parliament ended
  • 20th August 1640 - Scots crossed the river Tweed
  • 'End of' August 1640 - Petition of the 12 peers
  • 21st October 1640 - Charles agreed to pay the Scots £850 a day while the occupied English soil. 
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Why were the Bishop's Wars so significant?

Why were the Scots rebelling?

  • In 1633 James decided to introduce a new prayer book in Scotland.
  • In 1625 the Act of Revocation revoked all grants of land made by the Crown from 1616.
  • 1636 James introduced - too close to Catholicism for them.

Examples of contact between the Scots and opposition in England

  • Lord Brooke and Viscount Saye were in contact with the covenanting leader.
  • There was a multi-kingdom dimension of opposition. 

Why would they find common ground?

  • Shared outrage to Laudianism, made them natural allies. 

Problems with ship money

  • Ship money yield fell dramatically from 90% collection rate to 20% following the outbreak of the Scottish Revolution and Hampden's case.
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Why were the Bishop's Wars so significant?

The difference between the two armies

  • The covenanter army was boosted by the return of many Scots. They were battle-hardened troops who knew what they were doing. Core directing the army had real expertise. 
  • In comparison the King used Conscripts rather than mobilise the trained bands, the local militia, because he didn't trust their political loyalty. The result was, that the army was made up of the 'dregs of society'. As they marched North they committed robberies, riots and murder.

Charles' plans to attack Scotland

  • Hamilton would lead an assualt by boat on the North-East Coast of Scotland with 5,000 men.
  • From North Scotland, Lord Huntly would lead a Royalist force South and meet Hamilton.
  • Both forces would then move further South towards Edinburgh
  • A naval force would transport a force from Ulster in Northern Ireland to West Scotland. This force would be led by the Earl of Antrim, Randall MacDonnel. 
  • More forces from Ireland would be transported to strengthen the garrison at Carlisle. 
  • The main English army would assemble near Newcastle and move North. 
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Why were the Bishop's Wars so significant?

The Short Parliament - why was it recalled?

On Wentworths return to England he advised that Charles called an English Parliament as the only means of raising money to fight the Scots

Why couldn't Parliament make the big changes they wanted to?

Many MP's were returned to Parliament in 1640 on an anti-court election platform.

Pym, Saye and Sele - attitudes and meaning

Key figures like Pym, Saye and Sele, were actually in league with the Scot's covenanters. Both recognised that a long term solution to both theif problems could only come from concessions to an English Parliament by Charles. 

Charles' reaction 

With Parliament dissolved, Charles arrested the three Lords he regarded as his leading critics: Warwick, Brooke, Saye and Sele, From the commons he had Pym and Hampden arrested. 

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Why were the Bishop's Wars so significant?

Relations with the Scots immediately after the Short Parliament 

When this Parliament did meet, Charles refused to compromise and dissolved the Parliament, determined to face the Scots in the field. The Scots did not wait for Charles to send another army to them but crossed the river Tweed and entered England with little resistance.

Consequences with Charles - relations with Lord and finance

Lords have said that unless he calls a Parliament he cannot have funds which means he can't make the Scots move. 

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Charles and Scotland - steps to crisis

Charles' aims in Scotland

Conformity in Scotland, uniformity in Scotland, use the Scottish Gentry as a source of income.

Revocation

All previous grants of Church and/or Royal land are revoked. Land owners were not sure if land was theirs or not. Worries that if the Church got more land they may be forced to turn Catholic. 

Scottish Privy Council 

He had 9 non resident English members and only 4 Scots on the whole of the English Privy Coucil.

Charles' religious aims and activities in Scotland and the consequences of this

  • Prayer book's imposition - It was not shown to the Scottish Parliament or Church Assembly but not introduced by Royal proclmamation. Caused rioting due to no consultation. 
  • Scots had to choose between loyalty to the King and loyalty to the Presbytarian Church.
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Aims of the Long Parliament

Political

  • Punish and remove the Kings evil advisors (Laud and Wentworth)
  • Remove corrupt courtiers
  • Rid of huge commission 
  • Stop absolute monarchy
  • Rid of Star Chamber
  • Reduce influence of courtiers
  • Find a balance between right of Kings and courtiers
  • Reduce influence of courtiers
  • Stop personal rule
  • Make subjects equal to King
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Aims of the Long Parliament cont.

Religious

  • Stop Roman Catholic conspiracy
  • Stop Straffords army from Ireland being used to enforce the prayer book 
  • Stop Bishops from deciding on religious and civil matters
  • Stop Laudianism changes

Economic

  • Rid of forest fines
  • Rid of Court of Wards
  • Stop ship money 
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Irish Rebellion

Why rebelling?

  • Timing - distraction
  • Religious threat and commitment 
  • Plantation
  • Revenge
  • Power vacuum
  • Fighting for Charles

What happened?

The Catholic native Irish had risen in rebellion against the Ulster Presbytrarians. 

Consequences for Charles

  • The rebels claimed to be acting in his name.
  • An army would have to be raised to put down the rebellion and the king had the right to command the army, but many felt he could not be trusted with one.
  • The conflict also strengthened the belief in a Roman Catholic conspiracy. 
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Irish Rebellion

Why this presented problems in England

  • Hundreds of horror stories.
  • People become scared of Catholicism.
  • Didn't want to give them an army.
  • Exaggerated number of deaths which caused panic.
  • Irish claiming they were fighting for Charles. 

Charles' Mistakes

  • He was inconsistent in following policy.
  • Appointed Thomas Lunsford as governor of the Tower of London, this confirmed Charles' secret desire to regain freedom through military coup.
  • He cancelled the appointment but this proved he had thought about a coup and he was weak.
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Irish Rebellion

Significance of Militia Bill

Gave Parliament the power over the trained bamds and the power to appoint army commanders. 

Significance of Grand Remonstrance

  • Could not be trusted with controlling an army.
  • It was a direct attack on Charles.
  • Political issues were deliberately and openely targeted.
  • The debate as to whether to publish the Grand Remonstrance shows division in Parliament. 
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Events between 1640 and 1642

3rd November 1640 - First meeting of Long Parliament - In a mood of anger the Long Parliament wanted to get rid of Charles and evil advisers. They united against abuses of personal rule.

11th November 1640 - Wentworth Impeached - Wanted to punish him for enforcing Laudianism and were determined to eliminate his threat. However, evidence was difficult to obtain as he was acting out Charles' will. 

February 1641 - Root and Branch Petition - Called for the abolition of Bishops, most MP's were not keen and wanted the system like it was when Elizabeth reigned. Pym realises divisive nature and gives to committee. 

15th February 1641 - Triennial Act passed by Parliament - Parliament had to be called every three years at least and could assemble even if not called. They were only to be dismissed by own consent. 

19th February 1641 - Bridge Appointments - Bedford became Lord Treasurer and Pym Chancellor with the aim of uniting the Country and drag the Monarchy into the real world. Bedford, Saye and Sale, Mandeville and Essex were appointde to the Privy Council. Maybe avoid executing Wentworth. 

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Events between 1640 and 1642

March 1641 - Wentworth's trial - Pym accused him of subverting the fundamental law to introduce arbitary. Stafford defended himself by saying that he was only acting on his Master's wishes. The outcome was that he was voted dead. 

19th April 1641 - Parliamnet learn that Charles has recalled all officers to return to their commands in the North - This was interpreted as an attempt to raise an army and then dissolve Parliament. Pym used to get Parliament to pass the act of attainder.

May 1641 - Charles signs Triennial Act - Removal of elements of prerogative. Didn't realise what he was signing. 

3rd May 1641 - Pym shares army plot rumours - an attempt by a group of officers to seise tower, release Wentworth and dissolve Parliament. There was no real evidence of Charles' involvement but Pym skillfully linked it to the recall of officers. 

10th May 1641 - Bedford dies - Bedford had a foot in both camps, he was a courtier but had good relations with Parliament. 

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Events between 1640 and 1642

10th May 1641 - Charles agrees to Wentworth's attainder - Worried about his families safety.

10th May 1641 - Protestation Oath - Can't be dissolved without their own consent. Bind MP's together in a time of crisis. Expected to swear to defend the interests and privileges of Parliament and true protestant religion against all popish and popery innovation. 

12th May 1641 - Wentworth Executed - Charles was less inclined to accept negotiated solution as he doesn't want to compromise anymore. 

'Summer' 1641 - Pym develops 10 Propositions - they included: - That Charles should delay his visit to Scotland: many worried, after the Army Plot, that Charles would try to deploy the Scottish armies against Parliament. - That Charles should remove the Catholic priests from the Queen's service: there was a great fear that Catholicism would enter England if the Catholic priests who surrounded the Queen converted the Royal sons into Catholics. - The dismissal of advisors who parliament disapproved of and who they blamed for stirring up division between the king and his people. '. 

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Events between 1640 and 1642

July 1641 - Abolition of prerogative courts, Star Chamber and High commission - Charles' prerogative was removed as his capacity to deal with cases directly was removed. Removal of enemies was now no longer possible. 

August 1641 - Ship Money declared illegal - Independent form of earning no longer possible. 

August 1641 - Charles leaves to negotiate peace terms with Scotland, MP's accompany to check events - People were worried he was trying to 'woo' Scots into providing an army. Charles' prerogative was once again lost when MP's were sent to check events. 

October 1641 - Royalist Scottish extremists try to capture covenanters - People thought Charles was orchestrating .

Throughout 1641 and beyond - Activities of the London Mob - They made people do as some MP'sw wanted and made threats of revolution look real. Divide MP's. 

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Events between 1640 and 1642

3rd January 1642 - 5 members Coup -

  • The failed arrest of 5 MPs on the 3rd January 1642
  • Charles suspected MPs of plotting against Henrietta Maria and accused his bishops of High Treason. 
  • Charles marched an army in to the House of Commons illegally, demanding the arrest of Pym, Hampden, Strode, Haselrige and Holles of the House of Commons. 
  • They had been tipped off and already left. 
  • Charles showed he was dangerous, irritated and at the same time highlighted weakeness by the fact he had failed what he had planned to do. 
  • This event increased support of many other MPs back to Pym, at a crucial time as he was losing support to Charles due to irrational behaviours such as the Grand Remonstrance 
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Events between 1640 and 1642

March 1642 - Militia Ordinance - 

  • Meant to be used for the king 
  • The Parliament used it to raise troops for their own army against the King
  • Parliamend ordred the appointment of officers to recruit militias.
  • The King responded with the Commissions of Array


The Commissions of Array: 

  • Charles asks for volunteers to fight for him
  • Out dated way of recruiting
  • Both methods were dubious and questioned in legality.
  • Charles had the upper hand as the Militia Ordinance was going directly against the orders of the King. 
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Events between 1640 and 1642

1st June 1642 - Nineteen Propositions - the English Lords and Commons sent a list of proposals known as the nineteen propositions to King Charles I of England, in York at the time. In what resembled a list of demands, the Long Parliament effectively sought a larger share of power in governance of the kingdom. Among the MPs’ proposals was Parliamentary supervision of foreign policy and responsibility for the defense of the country, as well as making the King’s ministers accountable to Parliament. Before the end of the month the King rejected the Propositions and in August the country descended into civil war.


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