Some objects possess mirror symmetry, or reflection symmetry.
2D objects have a mirror line, dividing the object into two matching (congruent: the same shape and size) halves, one a mirror image of the other.
3D images have a plane of symmetry
These are objects that are turned to face in a different direction while remaining the same shape and size. The pivot for the rotation is the centre of rotation. In order to answer a rotation question, include:
- Angle of rotation
- Centre of rotation
15.3 Combining Transformations
Reflection, rotation and translation preserve congruence. Translations consist of sliding an object up, down, left or right. You write this in a column vector:
This would be B, because the shape moves 5 units right and 2 units down.
Sometimes, you will have to combine transformations to 'map' one object onto another
When enlarging, you must specify a centre of enlargement and a scale factor. It often helps to draw rays from the centre of enlargement
- Scale factor greater than 1: simple enlargement- object gets bigger
- Scale factor between 0 and 1: the enlargement is a reduction- object gets smaller
- Negative scale factor: object is enlarged/reduced and inverted
15.5 Similar shapes and solids
Similarity: objects are the same shape but one is an enlargement of the other. If the enlargement factor is n:
- Corresponding lengths are in the ratio 1:n
- Corresponding areas are in the ratio 1:n(squared)
- Corresponding volumes are in the ratio 1:n(cubed)