Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes

All living things are made up of cells.

Cells can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

Eukaryotic cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells. They are organisms made up of eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler, like bacteria. They are prokaryotic cells - or single-celled organisms.

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Animal Cells

Nucleus - contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell.

Cytoplasm - gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes that control these chemical reactions.

Cell membrane - holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out.

Mitochondria - where most of the reactions for aerobic respiration take place.

Ribosomes - where proteins are synthesised in the cell.

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Plant Cells

Cell wall - made of cellulose. It supports and strengthens the cell.

Permanent vacuole - contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugars and salts.

Chloroplasts - where photosynthesis occurs. Contain a green substance called chlorophyll, which absorbs the light needed for photosynthesis.

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Cell membrane

Cell wall



Single circular strand of DNA

Plasmids - small rings of DNA

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