- Surrounded by a double membrane.
- Pores in the nuclear envolope.
- Dark staining area, nucleolus, within the nuclear envolope.
- Contains most genetic material.
- Largest organelle, aprox. 5 micrometers.
- Contains DNA organised into chromosomes.
- Pores allow ribosomes (synthesised by the nucleolus) to pass into the rest of the cell.
- Quantity depends on the activity of the cell.
- Bound by a double membrane.
- Inner membrane folded into finger like projections, called cristae.
- Central area contains a jelly, called matrix.
- Ribosomes and DNA (loop) float in the matrix.
- 0.5 micrometres in length.
- Cristae provide a large surface area for attaching enzymes.
- Matrix contains enzymes involved in cellular respiration.
- Inner membrane contains enzymes and proteins involved in respiration.
- Enclosed by a single membrane.
- Containing digestive enzymes.
- Spherical shape.
- Up to 1 micrometer in diameter.
- Enzymes used to recycle cell organic material or cell suicide.
- Membrane allows enzymes to be seperated from rest of cell.
- Two hollow cylinders.
- Arranged at right angles to each other.
- Forming a ring of microtubules.
- Near the nucleus in animal cells.
- Used to organise spindle fibres used in nuclear division (mitosis).
- Only in animal cells.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- A series of single, flattened sacs enclosed by a membrane.
- Ribosomes on surface.
- The tubules forming ReR are up to 7.0x10-7m in diameter.
- Polypetide chains from bound ribosomes are threaded through into the eR space.
- Contains small membrane bound sacs called vesicles, containg the eR protein bud from the eR.
- Bound ribosomes which are threaded into eR space have their polypeptide chains folded into proteins.
- Glycoproteins may be formed by attatching carbohydrates to proteins.
- Vesicles containing eR protein buds are transported to other parts of the cell.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
- No ribosomes.
- Sacs surrounded by membranes.
- Network of interconnected sacs in the cytoplasm.
- Continous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envolope.
- Synthesis of lipids.
- Carbohydrate metabolism.
- Detoxification of drugs and poisons.
Golgi Body (Golgi Apparatus)
- Stack of flattened sacs.
- Productions from the eR are modifed and stored before being packed into vesicles for transport.
- One side recieved vesicles from rest of cell.
- Attatched to the ReR and produced in the nucleolus.
- Can also be free floating in the cytoplasm.
- Both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes but prokaryotic cells are smaller.
- Made of RNA and protein.
- Site of protein synthesis.
Cell Surface Membrane
- Formed from 2 layers of phospholipid with proteins immersed inside.
- Phospholipids have a hydrophilic head facing cytoplasm and a hydrophobic tail facing towards the centre of the biolayer.
- Proteins in the membrane may be for structural support, enzymes, or in the assistance of molecule transportation across te membrane.
- Fluid sac bound by a single membrane, called a tonoplast.
- Containing a solution of sugars, amino acids, waste product and mineral salts.
- Large vacuole in plant cells and a small non-permenant vacuole in animal cells.
- Temporary store of waste but can also contain hydrolytic enzymes.
- Supportive structure to keep cell rigid.
- Rigid and made of celulose fibres running through a mixture of other polysaccharides (complex sugars) such as pectins and hemiculluloses.
- Supportive structure.
- Large organelle only found in photosynthesising cells.
- At high magnifications grana can be seen.
- Have an envoloped membrane called a thylakid.
- Stack arrangements called grana.
- Surrounding the outer membrane is a stroma.
- To photosynthesise.
- Pectin layer joining 2 cells.
- Sticky to allow 2 cells to connect.
- Cements walls of 2 adjoining cells.
- Cell plate develops the middle lamella.
- Microscopic channels in the plant cell wall and membrane.
- Allows communication between cells and the transport of substances.
- Regions where the secondary cell wall is absent but primary wall is present.aka. Thinning of the cell wall.
- A simple pit isn't bordered and may be round or a slit shape.
- A circular bordered pit is round with a thickened margin.
- Non-pigmented organelle in a plant cell.
- Are plastids (cells that carry out photosynthesis).
- Synthesising and the production of starch granules using the polymerisation of glucose molecules.
- Also able to convert starch back to glucose if needed by the cell.
- Starch made is stored as it is insoluble.