cell biology


Animal cells and animal cells

Animal cells include:

Nucleus- contains genetic material

Cytoplasm- where most of the chemical reactions happen

Ribosomes- where proteins are made 

Cell membrane- controlls what goes in an out 

Mitochondria- where most of the reactions for aerobic respiration takes place 

Plant cell includes:

 Chloroplasts- where photosynthesis takes place

Vacuole- contains cell sap 

cell wall- strengthens the cellv

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Bacterial cell


It has a cell wall

It has a cell membrane 

It has a DNA loop floating in the cytoplasm 

It has a plasmid ( small ring of DNA)

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Defenition= The stage of the cell cycle when the cell divides 

1) There is a parent cell and two copies sof each chromosome 

2) One set of chromosomes is pulled to each end of the cell

3) The cytoplasm and cell membrane divide

4) Two cells are formed, which are identical to each other and to the parent cell

5) They are called daughter cells 

Chromosomes= coiled up lengths of DNA molecules 

Cell cycle= a series of stages in which cells divide to produce new cells. 

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Five types of specialised cells

1) Sperm cell- reproduction:

Long tail and streamlined head for swimming to the egg 

2) Nerve cell- rapid signalling:

Long to cover a large distance, and a branched to form a network of connections 

3)Xylem and Phloem- transporting substances:

Xylem cells are hollow and phloem cella have a few subcellular structures, so substances can easily flow through

4)Muscle cell-contraction:

long so they have space to contract and lots of mitochondria for energy 

5)Root hair cell- absorbing water and minerals 

Large surface area for absorbing water and mineral ions from the soil

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Differentiation, diffusion osmosis and active tran

Differentiation= The process by which a cell changes to become specialised to it's job 

Diffusion= The spreading out of particles from a low concentration to a high concentration 

Osmosis= The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane 

Active transport= the movement of a substance against the concentration gradient 

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