Case studies


The River Derwent

The source of the river is high up in styhead tarn.

V-shaped vallys, waterfalls and rapids are common features in the rivers upper stage.

The river flows into derwent water.

It continues to the confluence of the river derwent and the river greta, a tributary in keswick.

Another tributary is where the river cocker joins the river derwent in cockermouth.

The mouth of the derwent is in workington, where is flows into the irish sea.

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Cockermouth Flooding

The effects of the flood

1300 homes were flooded with sewage

Businesses were flooded

Cost of damage per house was £28000

Total cost was £100 million

4 bridges destroyed, 12 closed

A policeman died

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Cockermouth Flooding

Short term response

£1 million given for cleaning/repair

Helicopters evacuated people

Others rescued by RNLI

£10 million was raised

Temp. train station built

Army built temp. footbridge

temp. library was built

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Cockermouth Flooding

Long term response

Locals involved in workshops to improve main roads

£500000 was awarded to the local people

A flood prevention scheme to dredge the river was given the go-ahead

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River Tees

Upper course

V-shaped valleys and interlocking spurs

Narrow channel



Middle course

Wider valley floor

Channel is wider


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River Tees

Lower course

Deep/narrow cannel

Load is sand/gravel etc.

wide floodplain

Meanders/oxbow lakes

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Old Harry Rocks







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Poole Bay


Sea wall is being eroded, natural supply of sand has stopped, beaches need to be replenished and sandbanks needs to be protected.

What has been done

Facilities under threat have been relocated, removed gabions, fence off areas to allow dunes to reraegente, limit car parking, no cars/dogs on the beach, 5mph speed limit.

In some cases they hold the line and in others they used managed realignment, where they move things back.

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Huricane Katrina (USA)

The USA were very prepared with 70-80% of resisidents evacuated before the storm hit.

1800 people died and 300000 homes were destroyed. 3 million people were left without electricity.

$300 billion of damage and 230000 jobs were lost.

The hurricane caused the sea to flood parts of the land.

Coast gaurd, police, fire service, army and volunteers rescued 50000 people.

25000 people given temporary shelter.

government spent over $800 million on rebuilding flood def.

About $34 billion spent on rebuilding houses, schools etc.

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Cyclone Nargis (Burma)

There was no emergency or evacuation plans.

140000 people were killed

450000 houses were destroyed and 2-3 million people made homeless

1700 schools were destroyed.

$4 billion of damage

200000 farm animals were killed

Coastal habitats were damaged.

Government refused to accept any foreign aid.

Burma is relying on international aid to repair the damage

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