C6- Chemical Synthesis

An overview on C6- chemical Synthesis

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Reactions

ACID and ALKALIES -Must Remember 

acids form H+   Alkali forms OH-

Nitric Acid - HNO3

Hydrochloric Acid- HCl

Sulphuric Acid- H2 SO4

Sodium Hydroxide- NaOH

SALTS- Must Remember

  • Sodium - (Chloride, Carbonate, Nitrate, Sulfate)
  • Calcium- (Carbonate, Cloride)
  • Magnesium- (Oxide, Hydroxide, Carbonate, Chloride, Sulfate)
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Types of Reactions

EXOTHERMIC- Releases Energy into the surroundings. This can happen when you are making bonds. eg combustion

ENDOTHERMIC- Remouves energy from the sourroundings. Can happen when your breaking bonds. eg Dissolving.

Rate of Reaction- Collision Theory

The more a substance collides the more they will react.


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Factors

Tempurature

An increase in tempurature and increase in the reaction.

Particle size

The smaller the particle size the quicker the reaction because there is agreater surface area, whereas a bigger particl takes ;longer to react due to the smaller surface area.

Consentration

A higher consentration means that more collisions can occur so there will be a quicker reaction.

Catalyst

This increase the rate of reraction but it doesnt participate in the reaction so it is not used up.

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Titration

  • Titration is used to measure the ammount of acid needed to make an alkali neautral,
  •  it is measured to the nearest 0.05cm3.
  •  when neutrilisation occurs it is called the end point.
  • Measures the strength of the Alkali
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Formation of Salts

  • Acid+ metal --- Salt + Hydrogen
  • Acid+ metal oxide --- Salt + Water
  • Acid+ metal hydroxide----- Salt + Water
  • Acid+ metal carbonate----- Salt+Water+Carbondioxide
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Chemical Synthesis

Steps-

  • Disolving - Leaves solid impurities
  • Filtering - Dissoled product goes through leaving behing smaller impurities
  • Evapration- Evaporates lyquid leaving a solid crystal (crystillisation)
  • Drying- Leave crystals to dry after a second filtering.

Calculations

Yeild% = (Acctual ammount/ Predicted ammount)* 100

eg (90/120)*100 = 75%

Where did it go?

  • you may have started with an inpure substance so not all has reacted
  • Lost in the Experiment eg. Slillage or measuring error.
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Chemical Synthesis

Steps-

  • Disolving - Leaves solid impurities
  • Filtering - Dissoled product goes through leaving behing smaller impurities
  • Evapration- Evaporates lyquid leaving a solid crystal (crystillisation)
  • Drying- Leave crystals to dry after a second filtering.

Calculations

Yeild% = (Acctual ammount/ Predicted ammount)* 100

eg (90/120)*100 = 75%

Where did it go?

  • you may have started with an inpure substance so not all has reacted
  • Lost in the Experiment eg. Slillage or measuring error.
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