C1a Products from rocks

Hey, I hope these help anyone who is revising for  AQA corechemisrty. These notes came from the AQA revision guide

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C1a 1.1 Atoms, elements and compounds

Key Points:

  • All substances are made of atoms
  • Elements are substances made of only one type of atom
  • Symbols are used for atoms to show what happens in chemical reactions


  • Elements are listed in the periodic table
  • Atoms form chemical bonds by losing, gaining or sharing a small number of electronsCompounds contain the atoms of two or more elements bonded together
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C1a 1.2 Limestone and its uses

Key points:

  • Limestone is used as a buliding material and make quicklime, cement and glass
  • Thermal decomposition of limestone makes quicklime and carbon dioxide
  • The formula for a substance shows the number of atoms of each element that have joined together

Limestone is made up of mainly of calcium carbonate; formula CaCO3

When heated strongly, calcium carbonate decomposes to make quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) and carbon dioxide (CO2)

Word equation:

calcium carbonate---->calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

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C1a 1.3 Decomposing carbonates

Key words:

  • Carbonates of metals are decompose when heated to produce the metal oxide and carbon dioxide 
  • We can represent chemical reastions by balanced equations
  • In a chemical reastion the mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the products 


  • Symbol equation should be balanced with the same number of each type of atom on both sides
  • Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. So the mass of the products is always the same as the mass of the reactants 
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C1a 1.4 Quicklime and slaked lime

Key points:

  • Adding water to quicklime produces slaked lime
  • Lime water is used as a test for carbon dioxide
  • Mortar can be made by mixing slaked lime, sand and water
  • Mortar is used to hold stone or bricks together in buildings
  • When carbon dioxide in the air reacts with calcium hydroxide in the mortar it forms calcium carbonate and sets hard
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C1a 1.5 Cement, concrete and glass

Key points:

  • Cement is made by heating a mixture of limstone and clay
  • Concrete is made by mixing cement with sand, stones or crushed rocks and water
  • Glass can be made from limestone, sand and sodium carbonate
  • Mortar made with cement and sand is stronger and sets faster than lime mortar. It will set in wet conditions, even under water
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good job

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